The Dicnemonaceae are haplolepideous mosses restricted to the southern Hemisphere and marked by a high degree (73％ of its species) of endemism. Previously comprised of five genera, only two, Dicnemon and Eucamptodon, are retained in the family.
Dicnemon is confined to Austral-asia (New Guinea, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Australia and New Zealand). It is comprised of five sections, thirteen species and one variety: sec. 1. Dicnemon - D. calycinum, D. dixonianum sp. nov., D. semicryptum; sec. 2. Synodonria stat. nov. - D. spathoideum, D. cuspidatum; sec. 3. Hypnopsis stat. nov. - D. pancheri var. pancheri, D. pancheri var. falcata stat. nov., D. connivens, D. seriatum comb. nov., sec. 4. Brauniella stat. nov. - D. subpiliferum comb. nov., D. planifolium, D. cochlearifolium comb. nov.; sec. 5. Fleischeria sec. nov. - D. robbinsii, comb. nov., D. novae-guinea comb. nov.
Eucamptodon occurs in Austral-asia and southern South America. It is reduced to two species and one variety: E. perichaetialis (Juan Fernandez Islands, Chile and southwestern Argentina); E. muelleri var. muelleri (eastern Australia, New Caledonia, and Norfolk Island); and E. muelleri var. norrisii var. nov. (Queensland, Australia).
The family is characterized by a derived haplolepideous peristome, massive precociously germinated, endosporically developed protonemata, specialized leaf nematogens that give rise to leaf rhizoids, long sheathing perichaetial leaves and the absence (variably expressed in some species) of a costa.
The Dicnemonaceae appear to be recently derived and closely related to an atypical element of the Dicranaceae (Braunfelsia, Parisia, and some members of Dicranoloma).
Fontinalis duriaei Schimp. has a growth rate of 12 mm/wk in the field during the November to July period. Its laboratory growth of 15 mm/wk in turbulent flow at its temperature optimum of 15℃ is the highest of any Fontinalis species measured thus far. Standing water reduces the growth at all temperatures, with maximum growth of 4 mm/wk at 15℃. Temperatures above 15℃ reduce growth and can eventually result in chlorosis and death of leaves.
A verified model for F. duriaei, using field light and temperature conditions, predicts the November to July growth as measured in its native stream, with all but two of the predicted values lying within the 95％ confidence range of the eleven measured field values. Temperature and light alone can account for the measured growth.
Thirty-six species of Riccardia are recorded from the tropical Andean region of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. An identification key to the species is provided along with notes on the taxonomy, distribution and ecology of each of them. Riccardia paramorum spec. nov. is a submerged species from páramo lakes in the Colombian East Cordillera. Two new varieties have been described too: Riccardia capillacea var. dentata and R. hansmeyeri var. dentata. Eight species were transferred from Aneura to Riccardia, while eight other species were reduced to synonymy.
Mosses and hepatics from different orders and families have been investigated for their polyamine content. Spermidine (SPD) was the dominating polyamine. Diaminopropane (DAP), putrescine (PUT), sym-homospermidine (HSPD) and sym-norspermine (NSPM) were found in most samples but spermine (SPM) and sym-norspermidine (NSPD) occurred only sporadically and in low concentrations. NSPD was fund for the first time in mosses, but was not detected in the hepatics. Further taxomonically useful differences were not found. Sporophytes had always higher concentrations of polyamines than gametophytes.
The Gulf of St. Lawrence moss flora is diverse and consists of 522 species. Based on similarity of distribution within the Gulf, 11 species groups are recognized: Widespread, Widespread Southern, Southern, Restricted Southern, Widespread Northern (I), Widespread Northern (II), Gulf, Disjunct Gaspé-Northwest Newfoundland, Northwest Newfoundland, Eastern, and Newfoundland Only.
The Gulf of St. Lawrence distribution patterns can be explained by present-day climatic and edaphic factors. Climatic factors are most important in explaining the distribution patterns. Other important factors include geology and physiography, fire, and snow cover. The importance of these differs for each distributional group.
Forty-three percent of the moss flora reaches its northern or southern limits in eastern North America within the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Of species with their northern limits in the Gulf, 70％ are of temperate affinity, while species with their southern limits are mainly of boreal or arctic affinity.
The moss flora shows a wide diversity of world distributional patterns. Forty-six percent of the species show more or less continuous distributions in their global range. However, a large proportion have major disjunctions in their world distributions, and many of these have smaller disjunctions in a portion of their eastern North American distribution. Species with these latter disjunctions have been used to support hypotheses of survival in ice-free enclaves within the Gulf during the Last Glaciation.
Nitrate reductase activities were detected in crude extracts from suspension cultured cells of the liverworts, Marchantia polymorpha and Marchantia paleacea var. diptera, and of the mosses, Barbula unguiculata and Sphagnum imbricatum. For collection of sufficient amounts of cells with active enzyme activity, it was effective to incubate thick cell suspensions in the induction medium containing nitrate as the sole nitrogen source, particularly for S. imbricatum cells which grew only with ammonium and had negligible nitrate reductase activity. Enzyme activities of the extracts from the bryophytes were high, when NADPH was used as the electron donor and FAD was used as the additional cofactor: maximum activities observed were about 300 nmoles NO2- produced/mg protein/30 min for the enzymes from two liverworts and B. unguiculata, and about 100 nmoles NO2- produced/mg protein/30 min for the enzyme from S. imbricatum. Definite NADH-dependent activities could be detected in the enzymes from the two moss species. On the other hand, the enzymes from the two liverworts used NADPH as the preferential electron donor, and the coenzyme requirement was different from that of the enzymes from other green plants.
Descriptions and scanning electron micrographs of the lectotype of Anthoceros laevis L., the type species of Phaeoceros Prosk., and of the type of A. carolinianus Michx. are presented to illustrate the characteristics which demonstrate that they belong to different species. Photographs of the type specimens are provided, together with details of the spores of “Anthoceros foliis majoribus Dill.”, which are identical to those of Phaeoceros carolinianus (Michx.) Prosk.
The lichens Dirinaria aegialita, D. applanata, D. confusa var. saxicola, D. consimilis, D. leopoldii, Pyxine berteriana, P. caesiopruinosa, and P. pungens have been analysed for their secondary products. Lichexanthone, atranorin and triterpenoids are the main metabolites.
Twenty-four species of Fissidens are recorded from Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Among them eleven species, F. hyalinus Hook. et Wils., F. bogoriensis Fleisch., F. splachnobryoides Broth. in Schum. et Lauterb., F. bryoides var. ramosissimus Thér., F. brevilingulatus Bartr., F. firmus Mitt., F. wichurae Broth. et Fleisch., F. robinsonii Broth., F. leptopelma Dix., F. mangarevensis Mont., and F. teysmanianus Dozy et Molk., are newly added to the moss flora of the region. Four species, F. nymanii Fleisch., F. giesenhagenii Broth. ex Fleisch., F. intromarginatulus Bartr., and F. amblyotis Dix., are reduced to the synonymy of other species. F. asplenioides Hedw., F. elegans Brid., F. siamensis Dix., and F. subangustus Fleisch. are excluded from the moss flora of this region.
Fifteen species traditionally placed in the section Limbidium Dusén of Sciaromium (Mitt.) Mitt. are evaluated and they are transferred to the newly described genus Vittia Ochyra, a monotype including only V. pachyloma (Mont.) Ochyra. The remaining species of the section Limbidium, Sciaromium conspissatum (Hook. f. & Wils.) Mitt., S. crassinervatum Mitt., S. obscurifolium Mitt., S. confluens (C. Muell.) Par., S. conspissatulum Par., S. platylomalum Par., S. pachylomatum Par., S. drepanophyllariopsis Par., S. krauseanum Par., S. lonchocormus Par., S. depastum Dusén in Scott, S. nigritum Dusén, S. maritimum Card., S. capense Dix., S. brevicuspis Broth., and S. pachyloma (Mont.) Par. var. brevifolium Thér., are considered synonymous with highly polymorphous, rheophytic V. pachyloma. Additionally several herbarium and invalidly published names, including Sciaromium scoulerioides Dusén in Card., S. tenue Dix., S. negeri Dusén, S. linguifolium Herz., S. plicatum Herz., S. pachyloma (Mont.) Par. var. gracilescens Herz., and S. pachyloma (Mont.) Par. var. gracile Broth. are placed in synonymy with V. pachyloma. All synonymous names are typified and a neotype is selected for V. pachyloma as the original type collection does not seem to exist. The sporophytic features are described for the first time for V. pachyloma. The hypnaceous peristome indicates that Vittia is a hypnobryalean moss and the genus is considered as the only representative of the newly described monogeneric family Vittiaceae that shows close affiliation with the brachythecioid group of families. The Vittiaceae is endemic to the western sector of former Gondwanaland and its geographical range covers the Nothofagus region of South America including the Falkland Islands and the Juan Fernandez Islands, with some disjunct stations known from the northern Andes, eastern Argentina, southeastern Brazil, South Africa, and the two sub-Antarctic islands of South Georgia and Kerguelén. The family is considered as distantly related to the mostly Laurasian Donrichardsiaceae. Presumably both families evolved from a remote, common ancestorial type of Gondwanalandic origin. The phylogenetic position of the Echinodiaceae and Rigodiaceae is briefly assessed and it is suggested that they should be removed to the suborder Hypnodendrineae, in close proximity to the Thamnobryaceae.