A new infrageneric system is proposed for Leucodon, based mainly on sporophytic characters. Leucodon includes three subgenera, i.e., Leucodontella (Nog.) Nog., Cryptotheca Akiyama, and Leucodon. Two sections, Macrosporiella (Dix. et Thér.) Akiyama and Leucodon, are recognized in subgenus Leucodon. Twenty species, including two described as new, L. sohayakiensis Akiyama and L. alpinus Akiyama, are recognized from East Asia. Most species are fully described and illustrated.
The catalogue includes all the liverworts so far recorded from Borneo (Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei, Kalimantan), special reference being made to Mount Kinabalu. It contains 623 species and many infraspecific taxa, belonging to 119 genera and 35 families. Basionyms, synonyms and the location of type specimens, where these are Bornean in origin, are given, together with the altitudinal range of each species. Annotations are chiefly concerned with taxonomy and nomenclature. A synopsis of orders, families, subfamilies and genera is provided.
Artificial keys of the 71 macrolichen genera and their 697 species from India and Nepal have been formulated with information on their occurrence there. The genera are arranged alphabetically. Four new combinations and a new name are proposed.
Algal-moss associations in 37 samples, collected from various regions in Egypt, have been studied. Globose, soft, gelatinous masses of certain blue-greens occur between or around moss plants in some sites. The main forms of algae belong to Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Chlorophyceae. Taxa belonging to diatoms are present in all samples, blue-greens and greens in the majority of the samples. Some algal taxa occur with all mosses, and some others occur with more than one moss. Certain algal taxa are associated with only one particular moss in one or more regions. The algal flora in the substratum under every two closely growing mosses is distinct. The association between blue-greens and mosses is beneficial to both and this seems to be also the rule governing the association between other groups of algae and mosses.
Altogether 193 species of mosses are reported here from tropical Africa, mostly from Kenya and Tanzania, with some very limited floristic data from Zambia, Zaire, Angola and Gabon. Brachythecium rutabulum (Hedw.) B., S. et G. is recorded for the first time in tropical Africa, and Rhynchostegium comorae (C. Muell.) Jaeg. has not been previously collected on the African mainland. Tristichium mirabile (C. Muell.) Herz., Microcampylopus laevigatus (Thér.) Giese et Frahm, Grimmia donniana Sm., Orthodontium lineare Schwaegr., Schwetschkea fabronioides (Welw. et Duby) Broth., Brachythecium sublaetum Broth. in Mildbr. and B. plumosum (Hedw.) B., S. et G. are reported for the first time in Tanzania; Bryohumbertia flavicoma (C. Muell.) Frahm and Pohlia mielichhoferiacea (C. Muell.) Broth. are new to Angola and Kenya, respectively ; and Isopterygium phlyctitheca P. Varde and Chryso-hypnum cavifolium (Dix.) Ochyra et Sharp are new reports for Zambia. In addition, many new records for the Kilimanjaro Mountains, Arusha National Park and Ngorongoro Conservation Area are provided. Four new combinations are proposed: Schizymenium cratericola (Broth. in Mildbr.) Ochyra et Sharp, S. ruwenzorense (Thér. et Nav. in Nav.) Ochyra et Sharp, Platyhypnidium hedbergii (P. Varde) Ochyra et Sharp, and Chryso-hypnum cavifolium (Dix.) Ochyra et Sharp.
Callus induction was achieved in eight taxa of liverworts, a moss Polytrichum commune and one anthocerote, Anthoceros punctatus. Calluses were formed by culturing spores or thalli on Murashige and Skoog's medium (MS) with 2-4% glucose but without phytohormones, although calluses of P. commune and A. punctatus were induced from cultures on MS medium containing 4% glucose and 10-6 M 2,4-D. Cell lines in suspension cultures were established from individual callus lines and maintained by subculture at 14 day-intervals. Of these cell lines, that of Pellia endiviifolia (Pe) was examined in detail for its growth characteristics and morphogenesis. The Pe cells grew in the dark as well as in the light and accumulated a large quantity of starch at the stationary phase in suspension culture in darkness.
An extensive Frullania collection made on Mt. Albert Edward, S Papua New Guinea, by Dr. H. Inoue was examined, along with a few collections made in the adjacent areas, including Wau, Kasanombe, etc. Forty-seven species of Frullania were confirmed, including 3 new species, 2 new varieties, and a species previously not known in New Guinea. The Frullania flora of the Mt. Albert Edward area is discussed.