All Australasian Thuidiaceae sensu Buck & Vitt are assigned to Thuidium. Several species had been classified before in Pelekium of Thuidiopsis but these genera are not accepted in the present treatment. Ten species are recognized, including a new species (T. synoicum Touw) that may represent the only synoicous species of the genus, and T. sparsum (Hook. f. & Wils.) Reichdt var. hastatum (Mitt.) Touw & Falter stat. nov. Numerous reductions are presented. Previous reductions in Thuidiopsis and among species associated with T. meyenianum have been checked for Australasia and adjacent regions. Many of these are considered erroneous in consequence of persistent and complicated confusion which is discussed in detail. T. laeviusculum is endemic to Australasia; T. furfurosum and T. sparsum are widespread in the Southern Hemisphere. T. subglaucinum has a disjunct distribution in temperature parts of Australia and East Asia. All remaining species are essentially tropical Indopacific rain forest plants. Of these, T. cymbifolium is common in Australia (reaching the south coast of Victoria) and has been found in a few scattered localities in New Zealand. All others are rare and restricted to tropical areas. T. plumulosum and T. velatum are reported as new to Australasia. An identification key is provided, and for each species or variety are given: typification, synonymy with pertaining literature, description, illustrations, and notes on distribution (illustrated by dot maps), ecology, fruiting, and various other subjects.
This study aims to examine the spores of all the currently known southern African Riccia species. Spore descriptions of 48 Riccia species are given, including 17 that were recently described. A set of five SEM micrographs and one light microscope micrograph is provided for each species. A key to the species, based solely on spore characters, is added. Most of the southern African species are endemic, and only 13 also occur elsewhere in the world.
In many Riccia species the spore-wall ornamentation provides taxonomic specificity. The spores in the majority of the species have reticulate ornamentation; some have radiating ridges or bi- to trichotomously branching ridges; occasionally the sculpturing is papillate or vermiculate, foveolate or densely sprinkled with granules. In a few rare species, the spores remain permanently in tetrads.
This study precedes a taxonomic revision of the genus in southern Africa where the nomenclature will be treated.
A review of taxonomic problems in Cratoneuron (Sull. in Gray) Spruce is provided and all taxa that had previously been included in the genus are discussed at length. Cratoneuron, since its inception, has been an unnatural and polyphyletic taxon and all the species of the genus, except C. filicinum (Hedw.) Spruce, are transferred to other genera, leaving Cratoneuron monotypic. Hypnum fallax Brid., Cratoneuron punae C. Muell., C. formosanum Broth., C. procerum (Dix.) Broth. and C. subcurvicaule P. Varde are reduced to synonymy with C.filicinum. One distinct variety, C. filicinum var. atrovirens (Brid.) Ochyra, is recognized and it includes the plants that have frequently been named C. filicinum var. fallax (Brid.) G. Roth by most workers, and Hypnum vallis-clausae Brid. and Amblystegium formianum Fior.-Mazz. are identical to this variety. The monotypic family Cratoneuraceae Moenk. is restored to accommodate Cratoneuron and it is considered to be related to the Leskeaceae. The taxonomic status of Hypnum curvicaule Jur., a species that for a long time has been treated as C. filicinum var. curvicaule (Jur.) Moenk., is discussed at length. This taxon is retained in the Amblystegiaceae in the new genus Callialaria Ochyra as C. curvicaulis (Jur.) Ochyra. Cratoneuron commutatum (Hedw.) G. Roth and C. decipiens (De Not.) Loeske are transferred to the newly erected genus Palustriella Ochyra that is allied to Helodium (Sull.) Warnst. and its relatives as P. commutata (Hedw.) Ochyra and P. decipiens (De Not.) Ochyra. Several varieties of the former C. commutatum and C. decipiens are given formal names in Palustriella, including P. commutata var. diastrophylla (Brid.) Ochyra, P. c. var. falcata (Brid.) Ochyra, P. c. var. fluctuans (B., S. & G.) Ochyra, P. c. var. irrorata (Mikut.) Ochyra, P. c. var. minor (Lesq.) Ochyra, P. c. var. pseudodecipiens (Amann) Ochyra, P. c. var. ptychodioides (G. Roth) Ochyra, P. c. var. sulcata (Lindb.) Ochyra and P. decipiens var. napaeiformis (Schiffn.) Ochyra, while Cratoneuron commutatovirescens Amann and C. sulcatoirrigatum Meyl. are tentatively reduced to the status of varieties within P. commutata as P. c. var. commutatovirescens (Amann) Ochyra and P. c. var. sulcatoirrigata (Meyl.) Ochyra. A brief assessment of the Thuidiaceae is presented and its subfamily Helodioideae Fleisch. is raised to family rank as Helodiaceae (Fleisch.) Ochyra. Apart from Helodium and Palustriella it includes Bryochenea Gao & Chang and Actinothuidium (Besch.) Broth., while Bryonoguchia Iwats. & Inoue and Hylocomiopsis Card. are excluded from the family. A key for separation of the genera of the Helodiaceae is given. Other heterogeneous elements in Cratoneuron are also discussed. C. perplicatum (Dusén) Broth. and C. submersum Herz. are identical to Drepanocladus longifolius (Mitt.) Broth. ex Par.; C. sordidum (C. Muell.) Broth. and C. drepanocladioides Broth. in Dryg. are inseparable from Drepanocladus sendtneri (Schimp.) Warnst.; C. mendozense Herz. is placed in synonymy with Drepanocladus aduncus (Hedw.) Warnst.; and Hypnum filicinum var. minus Wils. & Hook. f., Cratoneuron kerguelense (Mitt.) Broth. and C. arcticum Steere are considered to be synonymous with Pseudoleskea chilensis (Lor.) Ochyra. The conspecificity of the latter species has considerably extended the range of P. chilensis that is now established as a bipolar disjunct.
Marchantia polymorpha was collected from several localities, mainly in France, but also in some other European countries and on other continents. Studies of enzyme polymorphism (esterases, peroxidases, acid phosphatases, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase) using polyacrylamide electrophoresis have shown a good correlation between habitat and electrophoretic data. They clearly indicate the existence of two ecotypes: the first, domestic, spread over the whole geographical area investigated, and the second, with two biotypes, occuring only in wet hebitats. The two biotypes could correspond to Marchantia aquatica (Nees) Burgeff and/or M. alpestris (Nees) Burgeff, but only one of them is discriminated by morphological analysis. Furthermore, electrophoretic techniques revealed at least one recombinant between the two ecotypes. Indices of variability were calculated to compare results from this dioicous species with those obtained previously from two monoicous liverworts,
After studying peristomes of 17 species of Orthotrichum (Orthotrichaceae, Musci) in the SEM it is postulated an orthotrichaceous type of peristome exists. The basic type has a peristomial formula of 4 : 2 : 4 with complete alignment of the cells in the inner peristomial layer (IPL); teeth and segments alternate, both have a basic number of 16, and both exhibit hygroscopic movements; a basal membrane is present; the ornamentation is well developed. The other types can be derived by asymmetric divisions in the IPL leading to reduction in number of segments, by fusion of teeth in pairs and by reduction of ornamentation on all surfaces. The presence of a 4 : 2 : 3 formula in e.g. O. compactum and O. diaphanum indicates a possible relationship between the orthotrichaceous and dicranaceous peristomes with the latter derived from the former.
The chemical constituents of 13 species of Radula were analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC) and combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The chemical results support the morphological classification of each species.
From in vitro cultures of the liverwort Ricciocarpos natans the two new sesquiterpene lactones ricciocarpin A and ricciocarpin B were isolated. The fresh weight and the dry weight of cultured liverwort could be increased to the twelve-fold amount within 24 days.
The flavonoid pattern of Plagiomnium cuspidatum and P. elatum was evaluated. Fifteen different flavones, mainly flavone glycosides were isolated. The new natural compounds Elatin; 5-OH-Amentoflavone; 2,3-Dihydro-5'-hydroxyamentoflavone, 2,3-Dihydro-5'-hydroxyrobustaflavone and 2,3-Dihydro-5',3'''-dihydroxyamentoflavone were amongst them. The phytochemical relevance of these results is briefly discussed.
Efficient syntheses for tricetin (1), and the tricetin-related flavonoid aglyca apometzgerin (2), tricin (3) and selgin (4) are developed from easily accessable starting materials. By the new synthetic procedures, these flavones can be obtained on preparative scale.
A simple and quick separation system for flavonoids by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using photodiode array detection was developed. It turned out to be quite valuable for separating the main flavonoids from crude methanolic extracts which could be shown on the example of the moss Bryum capillare.
We report a preferentially NADPH-linked glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in Sphagnum species for the first time. In contrast to liverworts and other mosses, Sphagna grown in natural habitats display activities near the threshold of detection. In species cultivated under axenic conditions in a fermenter the GDH activity is enhanced up to tenfold. Utilizing mainly NADPH in the amination reaction tested, the enzyme differs from that of other bryophytes which is preferentially NADH-linked.
Nitrite reductase (NIR, EC 126.96.36.199) from Sphagnum magellanicum Brid. is a nitrite and nitrate inducible enzyme. The induction is light dependent. Cycloheximide inhibits the induction of NIR activity, whereas Chloramphenicol does not have any effect. The enzyme was purified 34-fold to a specific activity of 252 nkat mg-1 protein. Two peaks of activity were separated by ion-exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of NIR I was estimated to be 62,000 by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100, and 70,000 for NIR II respectively. In SDS PAGE molecular weights of 61,000 (NIR I) and 64,000 (NIR II) were obtained. The NIR isoforms varied with respect to the optimum pH (pH 7.5 and 7.2 respectively), their apparent molecular weights and their affinity towards nitrite.
In this paper a method for the isolation of cell wall bound peroxidase isozymes of Sphagnum magellancium will be described. The molecular weights of some peroxidase isozymes are determined. Different clones of Sphagnum magellanicum cultivated under axenic conditions in a fermenter expressed differences in isozyme patterns in PAGE. On the other hand it could be demonstrated, that even small changes in environmental conditions caused differences in the isozyme pattern of one clone. It will be pointed out that the interpretation of the results of perixodase patterns should be handled with care.
Observations in the field suggest that moss shoots are not commonly grazed, but immature capsule damage by slugs is abundant. In an investigation of the palatability of the mosses, Mnium hornum and Brachythecium rurabulum, to slugs in the family Arionidae it was found that the slugs ate considerably more immature capsule than leafy shoot. Phenolics have proved to be effective deterrents to molluscan feeding both in brown algae and in angiosperms. Therefore the phenolic component of the moss shoot and immature capsule was compared using HPLC, PC and TLC analysis to discover whether phenolic concentration can be correlated with low consumption. Nine phenolic compounds were identified, some within the cell and some wall-bound. Ferulic and possibly m- or p-coumaric acid were concentrated in the wall-bound fraction of the shoot. Other phenolics were concentrated within the immature capsule or were common to both moss tissues. The extraction and isolation of these compounds is discussed in relation to the form and location of a possible feeding deterrent.
Sphagnum magellanicum was collected in a bog near Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, FRG, Metal ions were removed from the plants before using the material for collecting air pollutants. For use in the field, the washed Sphagnum was sandwiched between two layers of plastic screen and suspended, by the edges only, in a plastic holder. This method allowed the installation of a heater in the holder. The particular design heated the plant material at air temperatures below +3℃, making the units useful monitors even in winter temperatures as low as -20℃. Monthly depositions of Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Na, K, Ca and Mg were measured. The results were comparable to those obtained from rainfall trapped at the same sites.