The moss Tortula ruralis was transplanted to six biomonitoring sites around the coal-fuelled power plant at Ajka (west Hungary), 27 November 1987-27 January 1988. After the period of exposure the amounts of Al, Cr, Fe, Ni and Pb in the transplants were distinctly elevated compared with the control. A clear gradient of decreasing contamination was visible from the spot nearest the power station towards the remote locations. The measured eco-physiological parameters did well correspond to this finding. While the photopigments (carotenoids + chlorophylls) amounted 2.14mg·g-1 dry weight in the control, values of 0.78, 1.19 and 1.55 were detected for T. ruralis in the direct surroundings of the power plant. Net photosynthesis was reduced in all the transplants, ranging from -12% (Kislöd) to -48% (power station). Dark respiration was stimulated in five of the six transplants. Of particular interest were the changes in the resaturation responses. Mosses from the most polluted spots had significant lower rates of maximum dark respiration upon remoistening (“wetting burst”), and also reduced levels of net photosynthesis 24h within resaturation. The content of non-structural carbohydrates was decreased in all the transplants, apparently due to a much lower starch content. Thus, upon pollution starch is converted into soluble sugars to compensate the reduced production of photosynthates. It was concluded that eco-physiological parameters of T. ruralis are reliable to indicate environmental pollution, particularly those of photosynthesis and resaturation. By contrast, dark respiration responses proved to be doubtful for this purpose.
This paper presents the results of SEM investigations of wall markings on the inner face of the hyaline cells of the branch leaves of eight species of Sphagnum, S. papillosum Lindb., S. palustre L., S. henryense Warnst., S. affine Ren. & Card., S. portoricense Hampe, S. squarrosum Crome, S. teres (Schimp.) Ångstr. in Hartm., and S. wulfianum Girg. Two types of markings are described and illustrated: papillae and ridges. The papillae are simple or compound and are sometimes coalesced into straight, curvilinear, or wavy rods or lines. The ridges are parallel or curved into networks. Papillae on the inner walls of the hyaline cells of S. palustre are described for the first time. Papillae and ridges occur on some of the fibrils of the hyaline cells, indicating that in development the extra ornamentations are deposited after the fibrils have formed. The SEM reveals faint wall markings that are not visible with the light microscope.
Based on a phenetic evaluation of 7 gametophytic and 10 sporophytic characters, the Campylopodioideae have been redefined. The Campylopodioideae now consist of Atractylocarpus, Bryohumbertia, Campylopus, Dicranodontium, Pilopogon and Sphaerothecium. The genera Microcampylopus and Campylopodium are placed in the Dicranelloideae, and Campylopodiella is placed to the Paraleucobryoideae. The sinuose seta has probably evolved several times independently. A key is given for the genera of Campylopodioideae. A cladistic analysis, based on the same character states as for phenetic analysis, reflects phenetic analysis.
Dicranum tauricum shows in the cross section of the leaf costa groups of hydroids, which were hitherto overlooked. The hydroids represent a good characteristic for separating vegetative specimens of D. tauricum and D. fragilifolium.
The type material of Hylocomium indicum Dixon from the Himalayas of northern India is briefly described and illustrated. This name is found to be a taxonomic synonym of Miehea himalayana Ochyra and accordingly the new combination Miehea indica (Dixon) Ochyra is made. The interrelationships of the monotypic genera Miehea Ochyra and Ptychodium Schimp. are assessed and they are considered to be quite distinct taxa of the Hylocomiaceae and Thuidiaceae, respectively.
Differences observed in leaf length, leaf width, leaf length/leaf width ratio, leaf cell size, leaf margin, leaf upper margin serration, and costa length, between field populations of a Ceratodon sp., from the Windmill Islands, Antarctica and Tasmanian Ceratodon purpureus are maintained in plants cultured under identical conditions. The cultured plants analysed were at least two generations (subcultures) removed from the parent plants and environmental conditions likely to control phenotypic differences.
Significantly more new shoots and less upright protonema were formed in cultures of Tasmanian C. purpureus on Bolds Basal Medium (BBM) and nitrate deficient media (BBM-NO3). Greater shoot initiation occurs on nitrate deficient media.
Windmill Islands material of Ceratodon conforms to C. minutifolius (sensu Horikawa & Ando 1963). Culture and morphological differences lend some support to the delimitation of continental Antarctic Ceratodon from C. purpureus.
The 295 species of bryophytes, 177 mosses and 118 hepatics are reported for the first time to the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. All previously known species are cited, too, so that here is given a complete checklist of the bryophyte flora of Espírito Santo. The genera Aongstroemia, Chenia, and Chrysoblastella, the species Aongstroemia orientalis Mitt., Barbula indica (Hook.) Spreng., Chenia rhizophylla (Sak.) Zand., Chrysoblastella chilensis (Mont.) Reim., Grimmia ovalis (Hedw.) Lindb., Racomitrium crispipilum (Tayl.) Jaeg., R. cucullatifolium Hampe, Rigodium toxarion (Schwaegr.) Schimp., Sphagnum strictum Sull., Zygodon viridissimus (Dicks.) Brid., Cephalozia crossii Spruce, Lejeunea gomphocalyx Spruce, and Rectolejeunea brittoniae Evans are firstly reported for Brazil. Rhizogonium sublimbatum Crum. Tortula amphidiacea (C. Müll.) Broth., and Leucolejeunea conchifolia (Evans) Evans seem to be new to South America. One new combination, Sematophyllum cylindrothecium (Broth.) Buck & Schäfer-Verw. is proposed.
Bryophyte cultured cells of 13 lines subcultured for different periods were investigated with regard to their growth characteristics, chlorophyll content and morphogenetic potential. The fastest growth (doubling time of 3 days) was observed in two cell lines of the Marchantia A18 (subculture periods of 19 years) and Ricciocarpus Rn (subculture periods of 15 months). The requirement of inorganic nitrogen sources for cell growth differed among the different species used. High chlorophyll content per dry weight was obtained in Atrichum AuP (22.8μg/mg), Plagiochila Plo (21.3μg/mg) and Jungermannia JsO (21.1μg/mg) cell lines. Morphogenetic potential was confirmed in four cell lines of Pellia PeD and Pn, Marchantia MpK and Polytrichum Poc. The other cell lines had lost that potential. A loss of morphogenetic potential in bryophyte cultured cells was related closely to chromosome aberrations and long-term subculture with the exception of Atrichum AuP.
The flavonoid patterns of Bryum schleicheri and B. pallescens were evaluated. Twenty five different flavones, flavonols and isoflavones, mainly glycosides and some of their malonylesters as well as biflavonoids have been isolated. In further eleven species of the genera Anomobryum, Bryum, Pohlia and Rhodobryum flavonoids could be detected. The phytochemical relevance of these results is discussed.
Excluding Papillaria, dealt with in a separate publication, a total of 6 genera with 8 species are recognised in Australia with no endemic species. Weymouthia cochlearifolia is omitted from the family and Barbella nitens is not accepted in that genus. Most of the taxa extend from southeast Asia to the Pacific Islands. All taxa are illustrated.
Keys, descriptions, and illustrations are presented for the 30 taxa of Calymperaceae that occur in China (11 taxa of Calymperes, 2 of Mitthyridium, and 17 of Syrrhopodon). Syrrhopodon muelleri (Dozy & Molk.) Sande Lac. and S. prolifer Schwaegr. var. prolifer are reported new to China, and the presence in China of S. semiliber (Mitt.) Besch. in Par. is confirmed.