The Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory
Online ISSN : 2432-8944
Print ISSN : 0073-0912
Volume 76
Showing 1-28 articles out of 28 articles from the selected issue
  • HIROYUKI AKIYAMA
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 1-12
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

      Deficiency of morphological data for phyletic analyses is discussed, with special reference to the delimitation of the Leucodontaceae and the interspecific relationships within the genus Leucodon. Since all genera of the Leucodontaceae are epiphytes, some of morphological features that are usually regarded to indicate common descendant might be caused by mere adaptation to the epiphytic niche. Moreover, since most genera of the family are monotypic and remotely related to each other, it seems nearly impossible to infer the phyletic relationship within the family on the basis of morphological data sets. It is also supported by the discordance between morphological and genetic (i.e., allozyme) data sets in reconstructing phyletic relations within Leucodon. Though morphology still has much importance in species taxonomy, non-morphological data, especially molecular ones are inevitable for sound progress of phylogenetic systematics.

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  • JOHANNES ENROTH
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 13-20
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      The family Neckeraceae (Musci) contains the traditional subfamilies Neckeroideae and Thamnobryoideae (“Thamnioideae”). The family must be defined mainly on gametophyte characters, since the sporophytes display great plasticity. A few gametophyte characters critical in the definition of the Neckeraceae are pointed out. A list of the 23 genera provisionally accepted in the family is provided. The key word in understanding the evolution of the Neckeraceae is reduction, implying anatomical and morphological reduction in both generations. For example, the evolution of the peristome shows a reduction series from the generalized perfect hypnoid type (e.g., Thamnobryum Nieuwl.) to various reduced “neckeroid” types (e.g., Neckera Hedw. and Neckeropsis Reichardt). Several primitive versus advanced character states in the gametophytes and sporophytes of neckeraceous mosses are briefly discussed. Hypnodendron (C. Müll.) Lindb. ex. Mitt. and Climacium Web. & Mohr. are provisionally recognized as outgroups. It is emphasized that the evolution of the two generations have not always progressed at same “rate”, since there exist genera with a primitive gametophyte and an advanced sporophyte, and vice versa.

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  • JIRO HASEGAWA
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 21-34
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

      The classification of the Anthocerotae is revised based on a cladistic analysis. In the analysis the phylogenetic relationships among ten anthocerote genera or subgenera are based on the available morphological, anatomical and chemical data, using the Hepaticae and the Musci as the outgroup. Six most parsimonious cladograms resulted. The strict consensus tree calculated from these six trees suggests that Notothylas is the sister group to all the remaining taxa, which again form two major branches: one contains five taxa including Anthoceros and Phaeoceros, and another has four taxa including Dendroceros and Megaceros. In the former branch, the clade uniting Anthoceros and Folioceros is strongly supported, but the relationships of Phaeoceros are poorly resolved. In the latter branch, three paraphyletic terminal clades are found. On the basis of the cladistic analysis presented here, the two family and two subfamily classification of the Anthocerotae is proposed. The taxonomic status of Folioceros, Leiosporoceros, Notoceros, Apoceros and Hattorioceros is discussed, and the genus Notoceros (Schust.) Haseg. stat. nov. and the genus Hattorioceros (Haseg.) Haseg., stat. nov. are also proposed.

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  • SINIKKA PIIPPO
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 35-40
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      On the basis of the published literature between 1984-1994, 31 new species of Lejeuneaceae are reported for Western Melanesia, and seven have been synonymized. Additionally 20 species are reported as new for Western Melanesia according to the present Huon Peninsula project, of which two are new to science. In total, 235 species of Lejeuneaceae in 38 genera are known from the area.

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  • NEIL W. ASHTON, NICK A. ANTONISHYN, KRISTIAN E. BAKER, WILLIAM CHAPCO
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 41-57
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      Several DNA fragments, collectively comprising the complete small subunit (18S) rDNA of Physcomitrella patens and Funaria hygrometrica were amplified by PCR. One of the fragments, about 500 bp long, was directly sequenced in both species. Sequence comparison confirmed the close evolutionary relationship of these two Funariaceae. Cladistic analysis of these and equivalent sequences from other plant taxa allowed the potential usefulness of these sorts of molecular data for phylogenetic purposes to be assessed. The potential in this regard of a second molecular technique, RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) or AP (Arbitrarily Primed)-PCR, was also examined.

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  • WOLFRAM HARTUNG, ELKE M. HELLWEGE, O. H. VOLK
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 59-65
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      Abscisic (ABA) acid has been detected in all members of Bryophyta which have been analysed until now. Highest ABA contents were detected in species that were adapted to dry environmental conditions, lowest amounts were found in aquatic and hydrophilic species. Abscisic acid seems to be involved in several ecophysiological and developmental processes. 1) ABA induces stomatal closure in stomata-bearing sporophytes of Anthocerotae and Musci; 2) ABA induces desiccation tolerance in several drought resistant members of the Marchantiales and in Funaria-protonemata. 3) ABA converts the waterform of Riccia fluitans L. (submerged living) and Ricciocarpus natans L.Corda (floating on the water surface) into the landform. Ecophysiological as well as molecular biological experiments will be discussed.

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  • SUSUMU TAKIO
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 67-74
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      Growth behaviors of suspension cultured cells of Marchantia paleacea var. diptera, Reboulia hemisphaerica, Barbula unguiculata, Hedwigia ciliata, Sphagnum imbricatum, and Anthoceros punctatus were compared with those of other plants. Some unusual properties of bryophyte cells in relation to photosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation were found. In the light, all of the cultures were highly chlorophyllous. From their behavior in the dark, these cultures can be divided into three groups: no cell growth, active growth with high chlorophyll content, and active growth with a greatly reduced level of chlorophyll. Photosynthetic O2 evolving activity was detected in either light-grown or dark-grown cells of the latter two groups if they are transferred to light.

      In relation to nitrogen assimilation in bryophyte cells, three prominent features were found: most did not grow in Murashige and Skoog's medium, which is used for cell culture of various species of higher plants. Some did not grow in the medium containing nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. Nitrate reductase (NaR) of some bryophytes used NADPH as the sole electron donor. This type of NaR has not been reported in other green plants but in fungi.

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  • MARGARET R. BASILE, DOMINICK V. BASILE
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 75-85
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      Three important roles are proposed for the place-dependent suppression of growth in leafy liverwort morphogenesis and phylogeny. The first is in the setting apart of apical meristematic regions during the transition from diffuse growth of the “protonemal” stage to the strictly polar, apical growth of the leafy gametophytic stage. The second is to stop further development of organ primordia as soon as they are initiated. The failure of primordia to give rise to mature organs is responsible for the recurrent trend in leafy liverwort families toward “recessive” or “reductive” evolution, by the “loss” in the numbers (i.e. leaves) and/or kinds (i.e. branch-types) of parts. The third role is the modulation of the size and shape of leaves. Our research indicates that the chemoregulation of all three aforementioned manifestations of place-dependent suppression are accomplished by the interrelated actions of auxin, ethylene, and some cell surface-associated hydroyproline-containing protein; probably an arabinogalactan protein (AGP).

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  • ROBERT WYATT, ANN STONEBURNER, IRENEUSZ J. ODRZYKOSKI
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 87-95
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      We scored a total of 16 morphological characters for all eight species of the ingroup, Plagiomnium section Rosulata, and for the outgroup, Plagiomnium section Undulata. A formal cladistic analysis was performed on the resulting data matrix using the computer programs MacClade and PAUP. The single most parsimonious tree was 20 steps long and, excluding uninformative characters, had a consistency index of 0.765 and a homoplasy index of 0.235. The topology of the tree agreed well with Koponen's (1971) “assumed phylogeny” of the group, especially with respect to the two major subgroups: (1) a “sharp-toothed” clade consisting of P. ellipticum, P. insigne, P. medium, and P. curvatulum; and (2) a “blunt-toothed” clade consisting of P. affine, P. tezukae, P. ciliare, and P. elatum. Omitting the two allopolyploid species (P. medium and P. curvatulum) from the analysis had no influence on the overall topology of the tree. Comparing the tree to patterns of relationships based on genetic distance, it was apparent that the species of the “blunt-toothed” subgroup were more strongly divergent inter se. It is speculated that these species may have originated longer ago than those of the “sharp-toothed” subgroup, which seems to be of very recent origin, especially P. medium. In addition, the “blunt-toothed’ species may have been more strongly affected by Pleistocene glaciation.

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  • LARS SÖDERSTRÖM
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 97-103
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      Reproduction is important for several aspects of the life and persistence of bryophytes. Two important fields to study are the role of reproduction in population dynamics and survival, and in genetic diversity and speciation. The life history strategies performed by different species are correlated with the stability and predictability of the environment. Since most bryophyte populations are patchily distributed, the production, dispersal and establishment of diaspores is important. Genetically more diverse species have a better chance to survive environmental changes than stenotypic species. Therefore, the role of reproduction, asexual and sexual, in the maintenance of the genetic variation must be studied. This is also important in the conservation of bryophytes.

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  • SATOSHI IMURA
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 105-114
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      Seasonality in vegetative growth, and in the development of gametangia and sporophytes, was investigated in two dioecious mosses, Atrichum rhystophyllum (C. Müll.) Par. and Pogonatum inflexum (Lindb.) Lac., based on populations in Hiroshima prefecture, western Japan. In both species, the initiation of antheridia production preceded that of archegonia, and the duration of antheridia development was longer than that of archegonia. Shoot production in male plants preceded that of females by about four months (P. inflexum) or eight months (A. rhystophyllum). Male shoots elongated slower and over a longer period than female shoots in both species. Sporophyte production on female plants was thought to be the cause of these differences between male and female plants.

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  • TOMÁŠ HERBEN
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 115-126
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      Many bryophytes occur in habitats which are of limited size and duration. Consequently, a bryophyte population shows dynamics at two levels: within-habitat and between-habitat. Whereas vegetative growth and competition are primary processes at the within-habitat level, reproductive processes (including dispersal by gemmae) are crucial for the between-habitat level. Simulation studies show that knowledge of parameters of the habitat (habitat size and duration, mean distance between habitats, spatial arrangement and number of habitats) is indispensable for assessment of the role of reproduction in bryophytes. Information on these parameters is largely missing. An analysis of the British moss flora showed a strong relationship between frequency of propagule formation and habitat; mosses in small (or less contiguous) and unstable habitats show more frequent propagule formation. Without a detailed knowledge on remaining parameters of species biology and habitat, these relationships are difficult to interpret.

      The method of persistence of a species is important also in evolutionary considerations. Life strategies in bryophytes are syndromes of interrelated adaptations to different habitats. These relationships to the habitat (both at within patch and between patch levels) form an intriguing subject for the study in evolution of bryophytes.

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  • ANGELA E. NEWTON, BRENT D. MISHLER
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 127-145
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      The establishment of mosses in the field and the effects of mature plants on germination have received attention recently. Experimental data and theoretical expectations suggest that sexual and asexual reproduction may play different roles in moss ecology. Spores require fertilization (and thus abundant free water), disperse farther, and germinate best in previously uncolonized substrates; vegetative diaspores can be produced under more stressful conditions, disperse locally, and germinate relatively better than spores in contact with existing colonies. These ecological differences may be of greater importance than any difference between these two types of diaspores in amount of genetic diversity. The evolutionary significance of asexual reproduction has been downplayed relative to sexual reproduction, which we argue is unwarranted. Given the apical cell mode of growth, somatic mutation in asexual lineages can provide levels of genetic variation equivalent to those of purely sexual lineages. Many different types of asexual diaspores have evolved in mosses, usually via heterochrony (neoteny). The terminology for these is confused; we present and discuss a classification of asexual diaspore types based primarily on ontogeny and iterative homology. To study the possible adaptive roles of asexual reproduction and the phylogenetic homologies of asexual diaspore types, it will be necessary to examine specific cases within a phylogenetic framework .

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  • ROBERT WYATT
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 147-157
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      Several unusual features of bryophyte reproduction lead to predictions about levels of genetic variation and its partitioning among natural populations. Dominance of the life cycle by a free-living, haploid gametophyte suggests that levels of genetic variation should be low. Isozyme data indicate, however, that mosses display a range of variation comparable to that observed for diploid plants. The range for liverworts is less. Because of the tight coupling of ploidy level and sexuality in most bryophytes, it is difficult to determine if levels of genetic variation are higher in unisexual than in bisexual taxa. Bisexual allopolyploids in Plagiomnium and Rhizomnium typically show fixed heterozygosity, which inflates their gene diversity statistics relative to their unisexual, haploid congeners. Nevertheless, gene diversities are also higher for bisexual, haploid species of Plagiothecium than for their unisexual, haploid relatives. There are also few data available to test the prediction of higher rates of self-fertilization and greater differentiation among populations of bisexual than of unisexual mosses and liverworts. Restricted gene flow due to short sperm dispersal distances should lead to strong differentiation among populations, but this may be counteracted by long-distance dispersal of spores. Typically degrees of genetic differentiation among conspecific populations of bryophytes are similiar to those observed in seed plants, except that intercontinentally disjunct populations of bryophytes often are only weakly differentiated. Asexual reproduction is common and widespread in bryophytes and appears to lead to large clonal patches in some taxa. The recent discovery of several allopolyploid bryophytes suggests that interspecific hybridization is more common than has been thought. This conclusion fits better with the limited possibilities of bryophytes with respect to reproductive isolation, given that fertilization is external and effected by water in all taxa.

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  • R. E. LONGTON
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 159-172
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      Current evidence suggests the occurrence of major differences among bryophytes in features such as frequency of sporophyte production, facility for establishment from spores, and mating patterns, as well as in levels of ploidy and of intraspecific genetic variability. It is not clear from the limited evidence so far available how these features correlate among themselves, with habitat characteristics, and with other life history parameters such as gametophyte longevity, reproductive effort, and spore size in controlling microevolutionary patterns. Further empirical evidence is required about reproductive biology in specific groups of bryophytes, and could best be obtained from studies combining traditional observations and experiments with cytological and molecular analyses, in which electrophoresis and genetic fingerprinting are viewed as complementary approaches. A rigorous conceptual framework is also required, drawing on principles already established in the population biology of other organisms.

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  • ROLAND MOBERG
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 173-181
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      Speciation in lichens is poorly known, as the nature of the sexual reproduction is equivocal and there is no support from fossil lichens. Using examples from the Physciaceae, criteria for speciation in lichens are discussed. Some of the genera are well-developed in the Pacific, and for Phaeophyscia the taxonomy and world distribution is presented and correlated with presumed speciation processes. The genus Physconia, which is represented by a larger number of species in the northern Pacific than in other parts of the world, is discussed and compared with the presence in other areas. In the southern Pacific the genus Physcia is fairly well-developed and evidence for areas of speciation is presented.

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  • MASAKANE INOUE
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 183-195
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      The distribution of some representative taxa belonging to lecideoid lichens in the Japanese archipelago, with diverse climatic zones and complicated geographical conditions, are reported with taxonomic discussions. Based on the distribution pattern of each genus, the following three groups can be recognized: groups of genera occurring in “higher altitudes or boreal or arctic region”, “lower altitudes or warm temperate-subtropical region” and “lower to higher altitudes or warm temperate to boreal region”. Although number of species are commonly distributed or well known in Europe or in North America, some of them have been found from only one or a few localities in Japan. Chemical differences among taxa, which have similar morphology and anatomy, and their distribution in Japan are mentioned.

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  • PER M. JØRGENSEN
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 197-206
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      The genus Pannaria as presently understood is shown to be not homogeneous. It is divided in two genera: (1) Pannaria s. str., a tropical to warm-temperate, mostly foliose genus with no amyloid, apical structures in the asci, containing pannarin and related substances; it is further divided into three subgenera, of which subgenus Chryopannaria is newly described. (2) Fuscopannaria gen. nov., a temperate to arctic-alpine, mostly small-squamulose genus with amyloid apical structures in the asci, containing fatty acids and terpenoids; two subgenera are recognized, of which Micropannaria is newly described. All recognized species (16) in Fuscopannaria on the Northern Hemisphere are transferred to that genus.

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  • E. I. KÄRNEFELT, ARNE THELL
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 207-219
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      The generic concept and its early historical development until today's more natural multi-character based concept is discussed. The modern generic concept for lichenized ascomycetes has traditionally been slightly different concerning crustose groups on the one hand and foliose and fruticose groups on the other. More studies of sexual reproductive structures in the large groups of lichens should presumably be carried out since it has been demonstrated recently that a considerable variation actually occurs in both asci and pycnidia in the cetrarioid genera. Some examples of difficult cases of evaluation of structural characters in relation to characters in the sexual reproductive structures in cetrarioid genera and the Teloschistaceae are also discussed.

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  • S. HUNECK
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 221-225
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      This paper reports on new dibenzofurans from Roccella species, the stuctural elucidation and synthesis of arthonin and hypothallin, new amino acid amino alcohol esters from lichens, crustinic acid, a new depside from Umbilicaria crustulosa, the HPLC of aromatic and aliphatic lichen substances, a new synthetic approach to dimethylorcinol and the chemistry of roccellic acid.

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  • KAORU KINOSHITA, HIDEKI MATSUBARA, KIYOTAKA KOYAMA, KUNIO TAKAHASHI, I ...
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 227-233
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      A new depside, tentatively named NA-3, was isolated from Nephroma arcticum. Some other new compounds, 1-(O-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-3S,25R-hexacosanediol and a new amino acid, solorinine, were reported from Solorina crocea, and the following compounds were detected from Protousnea species: 5-propylresorcinol derivatives and bis (2,4-dihydroxy-6-propylphenyl) methane together with known compounds, sekikaic acid and divaricatic acid.

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  • JAN-ERIC MATTSSON
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 235-248
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      Almost 30 protein studies with different objectives for c. 50 lichens species are compared and the taxonomic relevance, in particular, and other aspects of the use of electrophoretic techniques discussed. The results indicate large enzymatic variation both in vegetatively and sexually propagating lichens, differences in enzyme patterns between lichenized and non-lichenized bionts but also, correlation between protein banding patterns and secondary product chemistry or spatial separation.

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  • ISAO YOSHIMURA, TEIKO KUROKAWA, YASUHIRO KINOSHITA, YOSHIKAZU YAMAMOTO ...
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 249-261
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      Cultured lichens were used for chemical analysis. A few lichen substances were identified in the number of samples indicated in the parenthesis as follows: parietin (4), usnic acid with isousnic acid in some samples (9), and barbatic acid, squamatic acid, baeomycesic acid (1). The majority (61) of the samples contained unidentified substances and some samples (20) showed no significant peaks in HPLC. Parietin and its related substances are more easily synthesized in Xanthoria mycobionts similar to natural lichens. Usnic acid is more easily synthesized in cultured lichens than depsides and depsidones; however, it is often found in only cultured mycobionts. In most cultured lichens (mycobionts), unidentified substances were detected, which are probably different from the known depsides or depsidones. Depsides were detected in a few cultured cell aggregates of lichens (mycobionts). New thalli reformed by a mycobiont with photobiont in culture can produce the same depsides and depsidcines as the natural lichens. The production of lichen substances in mycobionts can be changed during long-term culture. The production of lichen substances in mycobionts can be influenced by (a) the synthesized morphological structure of cultured cell aggregates of lichens, (b) the content of culture media (agar concentration, glucose concentration, etc.), and probably (c) physical environmental conditions.

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  • J. D. CONNOLLY
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 263-272
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      This article reviews recently described mono-, sesqui- and di-terpenoid constituents of liverworts.

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  • MASAO TOYOTA
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 273-281
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      Phytochemical study of bryophytes has been performed in our laboratory from the chemosystematic point of view. The Hepaticae occasionally produce their own peculiar bisbibenzyl derivatives. These have been found neither in higher plants, fungi nor marine organisms. Marchantin series has been isolated from Marchantia species (Marchantiales). Riccardin series has been found in Riccardia species (Metzgeriales). Plagiochin and perrottetin series occur in Plagiochila and Radula species, respectively. These compounds are useful as chemical markers to interpret chemosystematics of liverworts.

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  • HANS BECKER
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 283-291
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      In vitro cultures of bryophytes are useful for the production of plant material that otherwise has been available only in minor amounts from field collections. Species of hornworts and liverworts were cultivated, and plant material obtained had qualitatively and quantitatively the same compounds as field collected plants.

      During the last five years a number of new substances has been isolated from in vitro cultures of bryophytes. In liverworts, these new compounds included various sesqui-, di- and triterpenes, bibenzyl-, bisbibenzyl- and phenanthren derivatives. A new coloring agent of the cell wall was found in cultures of Ricciocarpos natans. The accumulation of the compound could be enhanced by variation of the culture methods. Cultures of mosses produced various flavonoids and hornworts were rich in phenylpropanoids. In cultures of Anthoceros agrestis a new type of alkaloid was isolated.

      The paper gives a short review on secondary compounds from bryophyte in vitro cultures based on results from the authors labora-tory and from literature data.

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  • YOSHINORI ASAKAWA
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 293-311
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
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      The chemosystematics of 28 families of Hepaticae is discussed. Takakia lepidozioides and T. ceratophylla could be included in Hepaticae because they produce sesquiterpenoids which are one of the most significant chemical markers of Hepaticae. Haplomitrium mnioides differs chemically from Takakia species. It biosynthesizes labdane diterpenoids. Balantiopsidaceae and Isotachidaceae might share a common ancestor. The occurrence of the common bis-bibenzyls in Aytoniaceae and Marchantiaceae suggests that both families have closer affinities.

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  • BEGOÑA AGUIRRE-HUDSON, PATRICIA A. WOLSELEY
    1994 Volume 76 Pages 313-350
    Published: October 21, 1994
    Released: June 19, 2020
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

      A compilation of 732 references containing lichen information for the countries of Southeast Asia between latitudes 10°S-25°N and longitudes 90°-150°E is presented. Key details on countries and contents covered by each article are included.

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