The Australian taxa of Calymperes (14 taxa), Mitthyridium (9 taxa), and Syrrhopodon (19 taxa) are keyed and described, and their ranges and habitats within Australia are summarized. Mitthyridium leucoloma and M. perundulatum are reported new to Australia.
Apotreubia hortonae Schust. & Konstantinova, known only from Alaska and British Columbia, is described. This taxon, like other species of Apotreubia, shows a highly “unstructured” organization, with scattered ♂ and ♀ gametangia and a simple but fleshy calyptra that lacks “sterile” archegonia on its surface. A. hortonae differs from A. nana, with which it had been confused, in being unisexual and having short but distinct antheridial stalks. Ability to study hundreds of living, fertile plants of a species of a genus which had been known from only sparing gametophytic material, sterile and/or with immature sporophytes, led to a reevaluation of the status of this genus and the phylogenetic position of the Treubiaceae. Discovery of the sporophyte, which bears a spherical capsule, has reinforced the claims of Apotreubia as a distinct genus. It is shown that Apotreubia differs from Treubia not only in the 2-stratose capsule wall but in the more diffuse gametangia, lack of a shoot calyptra, the simpler axial anatomy with a very “simple” vascular strand, and the furcate, dichotomous branching. In all criteria but the first, Apotreubia is regarded as a less advanced genus than Treubia. The copious production of slime papillae by both genera is regarded as a “hold-over” from amphibious ancestral types. It is speculated that unisexual gametophytes, lacking the capacity for asexual reproduction, producing large amounts of mucilaginous matter bathing the shoot apex, represent the most “primitive” of Hepaticae. Apotreubia and Treubia, Verdoornia and Haplomitrium, together with the even more isolated genus Takakia, all share the capacity to form such mucilaginous matter in considerable quantity. In these genera, aside from Treubia, there is at least a residual capacity to form diffusely oriented gametangia. Lack of organization of antheridia and archegonia into defined androecia and gynoecia (and lack of devices that protect gametangia) is regarded as highly plesiomorphic. In this regard, these genera (aside from Treubia) again show striking convergence. Only the Fossombroniaceae in Metzgeriales show similar diffuse and “naked” gametangia; this last group is usually placed at the beginning of the Metzgeriales.
Chiloscyphus subviridis (Hook. f. & Tayl.) Engel & Schust., C. inflexispinus (Hook. f. & Tayl.) Engel & Schust. and C. koeppensis (Gott.) Steph. are described and illustrated. The synonymy of each species is discussed as well as its specific characters. Leptophyllopsis irregularis (Steph.) Engel, C. olivaceus (Steph.) Engel & Schust., Lophocolea debilis Steph., L. krauseana var. disecta Herz. and L. calbucensis Herz. are considered new synonyms of C. subviridis (Hook. f. & Tayl.) Engel & Schust. Chiloscyphus divaricatus (Hook. f. & Tayl.) Engel & Schust. and C. carinatobifidus Steph. are new synonyms of C. inflexispinus (Hook. f. & Tayl.) Engel & Schust. from Australia, therefore its presence in South America is cited for the first time. C. elatus (Gott.) Engel & Schust., Leioscyphus setistipus Steph., Lophocolea willii Grolle and C. kerguelensis (Schiffn.) Engel & Schust. are considered new synonyms of C. koeppensis (Gott.) Steph.
Thirty Chinese species of the genus Cololejeunea are discussed, including one new species: C. hainanensis Zhu. C. equialbi Tix., C. inflectidens (Mitt.) Bened., C. sphaerodonta Mizut. and C. stephanii Schiffn. ex Bened. are for the first time reported for China. Cololejeunea falcata (Horik.) Bened., C. schwabei Herz. and C. verrucosa Steph. are newly recorded from Mainland China. In addition, C. roselloides Wu et Lin and C. chrysanthemii Tix. are proposed as new synonyms.
Gymnocoleopsis (Schust.) Schust., described for a sole species (Lophozia multiflora Steph.) of the high mountains of the Neotropics and of Africa, is shown to include three species and two subgenera, Gymnocoleopsis s. str. and Xenolophozia (Schust.,) Schust., comb. n. G. cylindriformis (Mitt.) Schust. [based on Jungermannia (subg. Lophozia) cylindriformis Mitt.] and G. capensis (S. Arn.) Schust. (based on Lophozia capensis S. Arn.) are discussed in detail. All three taxa agree in producing gemmae; in the exclusively lateral-intercalary branching; in the autoecious inflorescences; the usually monandrous ♂ bracts without a dorsal basal tooth; the uniseriate antheridial stalks; and the 8＋4-seriate seta of the sporophyte. They all, also, appear to have bistratose capsule walls with, at best, very local differentiation of a thin, third, interior stratum. Careful study of these taxa, which had all been assigned to Lophozia (or Jungermannia subg. Lophozia), shows that an intimate affinity of Gymnocoleopsis to Lophozia exists. Their study, again, illuminates the continuing problem of how to delimit the last genus. The solution of proposing genera for every isolated species or cluster of species is rejected.
The evolution of inflated perianths, similar to those of Gymnocolea, is regarded as an apomorphic feature, acquired independently in the holarctic genus Gymnocolea. The latter differs from Gymnocoleopsis in: (a) the exclusively Frullania-type lateral branching; (b) lack of a bracteole in the gynoecium; (c) lack of gemmae.
An unidentified Malaysian liverwort Asterella (?) species contains skatole which is responsible for the extremely unpleasant odour of this liverwort, along with 3,4-dimethoxystyrene and 1-octen-3-yl acetate. Two sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, γ-cupurenene and (E), β-farnesene, and 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde were also detected as minor components. The biogenetic pathways for skatole and the styrenes are discussed.
This paper presents a comprehensive taxonomic account of 43 species and 1 variety in the lichen genus Arthothelium Massal. (family Arthoniaceae) from India including 21 new species and 7 new records. Three new combinations and 2 synonyms have been proposed. The morphological, anatomical and chemical characters have been discussed and a practical key to the taxa and illustrations are given for the identification.
A new combination, Tuckneraria togashii (Asahina) Randl. & Thell, is proposed for an endemic Japanese lichen, earlier included in Cetraria, and a lectotype is selected. The species is compared with the other four species in the recently described genus Tuckneraria and a detailed anatomical description is made for the first time.
A cladistic analysis of 37 species of the genus Cladina and the section Unciales of Cladonia is presented. The use of the species of other sections of the genus Cladonia as outgroups give to large extent incompatible results which do not support the hypothesis about the genus Cladina and the section Unciales as sister taxa. The results indicate the paraphyly of the genus Cladina and polyphyly of the section Unciales.