Using permanent grids, the bryophyte layer of four Dutch chalk grassland plots have been recorded nine times over a period of nearly three years. Similarly, bryophytes and lichens in 21 plots in various habitats around Barcelona, Spain, have been recorded three or five times over a one-year period. The data have been analyzed for spatial pattern, species dynamics and pattern in dynamics. For analysis of spatial pattern and pattern in dynamics, correlograms of autocorrelation against distance between cells compared were grouped by K-means clustering.
Spatial distribution and pattern in increase and decrease tend to be clustered; the scale of clustering varies both within and between species. Species belonging to the same life strategy show similar patterns within each site, but when all sites are considered pattern types correspond better with growth forms than with life strategies. Species dynamics are higher for colonists and particularly annual shuttle species than for perennials.
Both spatial pattern and pattern in dynamics in the chalk grassland plots are assumed to be strongly influenced by pattern and dynamics in the phanerogam vegetation. In the Spanish plots from exposed sites, disturbances and soil heterogeneity are thought to be important determinants of pattern. Pattern in the Spanish plots from forest sites seems to reflect mainly inherent growth and mortality characteristics of the species.
The New Zealand members of the lichen genus Ramalina Ach. have been revised on the basis of morphological characters, internal anatomy and chemical information from thallus colour tests and thin-layer chromatography. More than 1900 herbarium specimens from New Zealand herbaria and personal collections have been studied and relabelled where necessary.
Eighteen taxa are recognised for New Zealand, including the ten species listed by Galloway (1992), three new species (Ramalina erumpens, R. inflexa and R. riparia), one new variety (R. erumpens var. norstictica), three new records for New Zealand (R. canariensis, R. celastri subsp. ovalis and R. nervulosa var. luciae) and the reinstatement of the name R. arabum, which is distinguished on the basis of its characteristic morphology and chemistry. R. geniculata is maintained as a separate species from R. inflata with significant morphological and chemical differences separating them.
A lectotype is designated for R. leiodea var. condensata Zahlbr.
Ten lichen species from the foothills of Kungey-Alatau mountain range, Issyk-Kul region (August 1992), and nine lichen species from Baikal region, Bolshiye Kotye biostation (July 1992), were analyzed for total lipid contents and correlation of the general lipid classes: neutral lipid (NL), glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL). Individual constituents of NL, GL and PL were also investigated. Examination of NLs by method of thin-layer chromatography showed the domination of triacylglycerols, free fatty acid, wax esters, steryl esters and free sterols. Among GLs monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol were detected.
Diacylglyceryltrimethylhomoserine (betaine lipid) was, for the first time in lichens, isolated from PL fraction of all analyzed species and identified by method IK-spectrometry. Furthermore the lipid contents of two same lichen species, growing in different geographical regions, were compared.
Fourteen protonemata growth patterns in mosses were described by Nishida (1978) and Nehira (1983) based on their experimental work and previously published reports and it had been generally accepted that these patterns were constant for each taxon and unrelated to the culture conditions.
We report here the growth behaviour of four species of the genus Bartramia cultured under 24 different conditions. We observed in addition to the Bryum, Macromitrium and Schistostega growth patterns numerous transitional forms, not previously described, that are dependent on the culture conditions. Our results contradict those of Nehira and Nishida and we suggest that standard culture conditions need to be stablished before further protonemata growth studies can be utilized for taxonomical or systematical purposes.
The patterns of sporeling ontogeny of Pellia epiphylla (L.) Corda and P. neesiana (Gott.) Limpr. were determined and compared under controlled experimental conditions in order to gain insight into the uniformity and stability of the patterns. Observations were made using both light and electron microscopy techniques in order to examine all planes of division sequences. The patterns of sporeling ontogeny were found to be identical for both species under the environmental conditions utilized in this study. Both species are precocious and endosporic and exhibit a fundamental ontogenetic pattern characterized by the initial production of a protonema composed of a row of four cells; one terminal cell, two central cells and one basal cell. Two central tiers of cells are then constructed via a regular sequence of internal divisions which, in transection, result in two inner triangular cells surrounded by eight outer cells. This internal, regular pattern is key to the uniformity of protonemal ontogeny. After dehiscence of the 23- or 24-celled protonema, rhizoid initiation occurs from the basal cell and sporeling growth ensues through the activity of an apical initial with two cutting faces. Thus, the stretched exospore is ruptured as the cylindrical sporeling elongates. Ultimately, the apical initial is transformed into a hemidiscoid apical cell which segments as in the adult plant to produce the juvenile, thalloid gametophyte of Pellia. The precocious and endosporic development in conjunction with the unique pattern of protonemal development exhibited by Pellia distinguishes this sporeling pattern from all other documented metzgerialian sporeling patterns.
Sporoderm and elateroderm pattern under SEM have been investigated in seven rare and interesting Indian liverworts: Calobryum indicum Udar et Chandra, C. dentatum Kumar et Udar (Calobryales), Schiffneria hyalina Steph., Trichocolea tenera Udar et Singh (Jungermanniales), Fossombronia cristula Aust., F. pusilla (L.) Dum. and Petalophyllum indicum Kash. (Metzgeriales). The diagnostic features of each taxon have also been provided.
Twenty-nine species and varieties of Fissidens are recorded for the Fiji Islands. Among these eight species and one variety, F. hyalinus, F. maceratus, F. subbryoides, F. ceylonensis, F. minutus, F. rupicola, F. guandongensis, F. serratus, and F. zippelianus var. robinsonii, are new to the moss flora of the region. Six names, F. glossobryoides, F. serrifolius, F. vitiensis, F. sylvaticus var. mammosus, F. mangarevensis var. peracutus, and F. peracuminatus, are reduced to synonymy. One species, F. pungens, is excluded from the moss flora of the region. Several species are illustrated, and the phytogeography of the genus in the region is discussed.
The newly updated and annotated checklist includes all published names of Chinese mosses and their provincial records up to 1994. A total of 4,832 specific and subspecific names are included. Of these, 2,457 are taxonomically accepted taxa. One new name, Brachythecium propinnatum, and two new combinations, Pylaisiella curviramea (Dix.) comb. nov. and Pylaisiella subimbricata (Broth. & Par.) comb. nov., are proposed.