Until about 1960 only three genera had been customarily assigned to the Gymnomitriaceae: Gymnomitrion Corda, Marsupella Dumort. and Prasanthus (G.) Lindb. & Arn. A fourth genus, Anomomarsupella Schust. (1969) proved to be identical to Eremonotus Kaal. ex Pears., which had been erroneously assigned to the Lophozioideae, following Müller (1939-40; 1951-58). New genera were assigned to the family during the 1960's: Herzogobryum (Grolle 1964), Acrolophozia (Schuster 1963, 1966), Poeltia Grolle (1967) based on taxa from the cold Antipodes or (Poeltia) Himalaya. In the present account, Nothogymnomitrion, Apomarsupella, Nanomarsupella, Lophonardia and Paramomitrion are described as new, all but Apomarsupella (3 spp.) are monotypic. In addition, another new monotypic genus, Cephalomitrion, is recognized for a paradoxical taxon assigned by Grolle to Herzogobryum, but almost surely more correctly assigned to the Cephaloziellaceae. Finally, the isolated genus Stephaniella Jack is tentatively assigned to the Gymnomitriaceae. Excluding Cephalomitrion, some 11 genera are thus recognized in Gymnomitriaceae, almost a four-fold increase in the number of taxa assigned to the family until the 1960's and a considerable increase from the 8 genera recognized in the key in Schuster (1974, pp. 9-11). With the increased number of genera assigned to the family, almost wholly in taxa from (a) the cold Antipodes; or (b) alpine areas of the Northern Andes, an attempt at arranging them in meaningful subfamilies becomes necessary. In Schuster (1984, p. 982) 3 subfamilies are recognized: Gymnomitrioideae, Eremonotoideae and Stephanielloideae. On succeeding pages these subfamilies and the Lophonardioideae are, albeit tentatively, accepted. All genera, and their perimeters, are discussed and/or described in some detail, and a conspectus of subfamilies is given. For several genera new species are described; for others, critical reassessments are given. Some 27 plates serve to illustrate critical details of all new genera and several taxa in previously described genera.
Kurzia quinquespina Engel & Merr. and K. hippuroides var. ornata Engel & Merr. are described as new taxa from New Zealand. Kurzia calcarata and K. hippuroides are lectotypified. Lepidozia allisonii Herz. and Lepidozia dispar Steph. are referred to the synonymy of Kurzia hippuroides. Lepicolea scolopendra (Hook.) Dum. ex Trev. is restricted to Australasia and is excluded from southern South America.
The endostomes in Orthotrichum hookeri Mitt. are shown to vary from individuals with 16 lanceolate-triangular segments to plants with 8 linear-lanceolate segments with all possible intermediate forms being present. Together with the variation observed in leaf shape and exsertedness of capsules this indicates a less advanced evolution than that exhibited in related species in e.g. South America.
Taxa of Struckia C. Müll. are similar to members of the Plagiotheciaceae (e.g., some Plagiothecium species) in having rhizoids growing from the abaxial leaf nerve insertion, or from the lower nerve back or from other parts of the basal leaf back, in that the rhizoids are sometimes purplish, and sometimes granular-papillose. This combination of rhizoid character states does not occur outside the Plagiotheciaceae among the pleurocarpous mosses. Other features found in Struckia and in the Plagiotheciaceae, but which are relatively rare outside this family are easily detached branches and narrow angles between the stems and the branches. In the strongly specialised sporophyte of Struckia, the long-pored stomata indicate relatively few possible familial positions, including the Plagiotheciaceae. Based on these characters, Struckia is moved to the Plagiotheciaceae. Contrary to earlier observations an endostome was found in Struckia, consisting of a low basal membrane. Finally, it is suggested that two of the taxa belonging to Struckia should be treated at the species level rather than as subspecies. Struckia argentata (Mitt.) C. Müll. (including its var. enervis (Broth.) Tan, Buck & Ignatov) has ovate to broadly ovate stem leaves, denticulate upper leaf margins, narrow cells (7.5-14.0μm) in the middle of the stem leaves, strongly branched rhizoids, and is mostly found on stems of trees and shrubs. Struckia zerovii (Lazar.) Hedenäs, comb. nov. (S. argentata ssp. zerovii (Lazar.) Tan, Buck & Ignatov), has ovate to ovate-lanceolate stem leaves, entire leaf margins, wide cells (10.5-19.0μm) in the middle of the stem leaves, slightly branched rhizoids, and is found on rocks.
Chromosome numbers in Australasian taxa of the family Bryaceae are now available for eight species of the genus Bryum, for five species of the genus Rosulabryum and for a single species in each of the genera Orthodontium, Brachymenium, Leptobryum and Pohlia from Australia. Data are also given for two species of Bryum from New Zealand and for two species of Rhodobryum from Papua New Guinea.
Reported here for the first time in the Southern Hemisphere are chromosome numbers for seven species of Bryum (B. argenteum Hedw. n＝10, B. australe Hampe n＝11 (10＋m), B. caespiticium Hedw. n＝30, B. clavatum (Schimp.) C. Muell. n＝11 (10＋m), B. creberrimum Tayl. n＝30 from Australia; B. blandum J. D. Hook. & Wils. n＝11 and B. sauteri B. S. G. n＝10 from New Zealand). First reports of chromosome numbers are also given for two species of Rosulabryum (R. subtomentosum (Hampe) Spence n＝10, 11 (10＋m) R. sp. nov. (A) Spence n＝11 (10＋m)) and Pohlia aff. nutans (Hedw.) Lindb. n＝22 from Australia while n＝10 is recorded for both Rhodobryum aubertii (Schwaegr.) Ther. and R. giganteum (Schwaegr.) Par. from Papua New Guinea.
Additional cytotypes to those previously published were found in several new populations of Brachymenium preissianum (Hampe) Jaeg. [n＝10], for a single population of Bryum pachytheca C. Muell. [n＝20] and for two populations of Orthodontium lineare Schwaegr. [n＝20] . Additional counts, based on studies of new populations that confirm previous reports for Australian taxa, are given for Bryum dichotomum Hedw. n＝10, Rosulabryum billardierei (Schwaegr.) Spence (Bryum billardierei Schwaegr. var. billardierei) n＝10, Rosulabryum subfasciculatum (Hampe) Spence (Bryum subfasciculatum Hampe) n＝10 and Rosulabryum torquescens (Bruch ex De Not.) Spence (Bryum torquescens Bruch ex De Not.) n＝20, 21 (20＋m).
Fifty-seven species, including 30 genera, of New Zealand liverworts were chemically investigated and 119 compounds identified mainly by TLC, GC and GC-MS. The structures of the isolated compounds have been characterized by the 1H-and 13C-NMR spectroscopies. The chemical markers of each species are discussed.
Caulonema differentiation in the moss Funaria hygrometrica has been observed to be governed by an interaction of auxins, cyclic AMP, ethylene and calcium, contrary to earlier observations that it is strictly an auxin-mediated response. This has been demonstrated from the present work by utilizing an auxin-sensitive and auxin-insensitive mutants of Funaria. The role of auxins in protonema differentiation is both inductive (mutant 87.13 and NAR-2) and stimulatory (wild type). Similar observation has also been made using the precursor for ethylene biosynthesis i.e. 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (inductive effect in the mutant 86.1 and promotory in the mutant 87.13 and wild type). It appears that the endogenous cAMP level in the protonema must be maintained low in order to discern the effect of added auxin, as demonstrated by IAA-alloxan interaction in the mutant NAR-2. Lastly, interaction of auxin with ethylene and cAMP appears to act through an elevation in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, as demonstrated by the use of Ca2+ ionophore A 23187. Thus, auxin action on protonema differentiation appears to be mediated through multiple inputs toward the single response.
The biogeography of 58 taxa in the lichen genus Cladonia reflects two major distributional trends in Pacific areas of the western United States. One trend includes species that are oceanic. Many of these species are found primarily or exclusively west of the Cascade Mountains, and are endemic to the western United States. This species assemblage, particularly south of the California-Oregon border, is isolated from more northerly populations. Like the vascular plant flora, it has experienced increased drought through the Holocene. A second trend includes taxa that are found in interior areas, primarily east of the Cascade Mountains. Most of these taxa have holarctic affinities, and many of them are found in the eastern United States as well as in Europe and Japan. The species assemblages on either side of the mountains are statistically distinct. Species from both groups are found in wet maritime localities in northwest Washington State, and to some extent in coastal Oregon and extreme northwestern California. These sites may represent an ancient assemblage which once covered more of the region.
The yellow coloured taxa of the genus Arthrorhaphis (i.e. A. alpina var. alpina, A. alpina var. jungens, A. citrinella and A. vacillans) have been revised for the Himalaya Range, the Karakorum and for the south-east Tibetan fringe-mountains. Arthrorhaphis alpina var. jungens, usually growing on sandy soil, appears to be a rather abundant lichen on open alpine (Kobresia-) meadows, often associated with other weakly calciphilous crusts, such as Megaspora verrucosa, Phaeorrhiza nimbosa, Ph. sareptana, Psora decipiens and several Toninia species. Arthrorhaphis vacillans, with generally similar ecological requirements, and A. alpina var. alpina in more sheltered localities, are less frequent. Arthrorhaphis citrinella, growing on mosses or decaying plants rather than over pure soil, is much more scarce in the study area than in the European Alps.