As a first contribution to a future monograph of the genus Plagiochila in “Flora Neotropica” a study of the type material of the oldest taxa from the region originally described by the Swedish botanist Olof P. Swartz is presented. The species Plagiochila adiantoides (Sw.) Lindenb., P. bifaria (Sw.) Lindenb., P. cristata (Sw.) Lindenb., P. patula (Sw.) Lindenb. and P. simplex (Sw.) Lindenb. are redescribed together with P. stricta Lindenb. which was typified exclusively on Swartz material. 38 new synonyms are presented.
Scapania is assumed as a genus derived from an ancestor that occupies an intermediate position between generalized taxa of the family Gymnomitriaceae and the subfamily Lophozioideae of the family Jungermanniaceae. Only sectional segregation of the genus is accepted. Many sections are considered to be derivatives of the assumed ancestor. S. aspera is presumed to be the root species that gave rise to many primarily Asiatic sections. Relationships between sections are discussed. The principal taxonomic changes are: description of two new sections (Incurvae, with S. kaurinii, and Verrucosae, with S. verrucosa); rejection of five subgenera, namely Jensenia (= sectio Curtae), Kaalaasia (= sectio Calcicolae), Buchiella (= sectio Cuspiduligerae), Scapaniella (= sectio Scapaniella), and Protoscapania (= sectio Planifoliae), and of the sectio Rufidulae with moving of S. rufidula and S. spitsbergensis to the sections Scapania and Ciliatae respectively; revision of the species composition of the sections Nemorosae, including S. brevicaulis (= S. degenii), S. hedbergii, S. javanica, and S. simmonsii, Umbrosae with S. angusta, S. griffithii, and S. umbrosa, Ciliatae, including S. americana, S. ciliata, S. lepida, S. oblongifolia, S. sandei, and S. spitsbergensis, and of the sectio Compactae with addition of the second suboceanic species, S. hollandiae.
The synopsis of the sections with their brief descriptions and taxonomic comments is provided. Tropical and Antipodal groups are considered only partly because of insufficient material.
The genus Frullania Raddi (family Frullaniaceae) is represented in south India by its twelve species i.e., Frullania acutiloba Mitt., F. apiculata Nees, F. campanulata Sde. Lac., F. inflexa Mitt., F. gaudichaudii (Nees et Mont.) Nees et Mont., F. intermedia (R. Bl. et Nees) Dum., F. muscicola Steph., F. neurota Tayl., F. serrata Gott., F. squarrosa (R. Bl. et Nees) Dum., F. tamarisci (L.) Dum. and F. wallichiana Mitt. The morphological diversity among vegetative and reproductive parts of each species is discussed and the distribution pattern and altitudinal range of each taxon in south India (Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andaman Islands) is also provided along with a key to species.
Leptoscyphopsis Schust. (1978), known from a single collection from montane Venezuela, exhibits criteria suggestive of Plagiochilaceae (free formation of geotropic microphyllous branches; vestigial underleaves; bilateral gynoecia) but is soft-textured and readily blackens in drying, as in many Geocalycaceae subfam. Lophocoleoideae. It is suggestively like Pseudolophocolea of the last group in the large, virtually homogeneous oil-bodies; the very reduced underleaves and gynoecial bracteoles; the wide open and rather bilabiate perianth. The genus is of interest in seeming to confirm a close affinity of Geocalycaceae and Plagiochilaceae.
The stem surface of 9 Chinese species in six sections of the genus Plagiochila is studied by the SEM. Paraphyllia on stem surface in 8 species, and mammillose stem surface in P. caulimammillosa Grolle & M.L.So are described and figured. The paraphyllia of the long known species P. denticulata Mitt. and P. khasiana Mitt. were overlooked hitherto. The paraphyllia differ considerably in number (from one to numerous), distribution (mostly restricted to dorsal side of stem along leaf insertion, but all around the stem in P. pulcherrima Horik.) and shape. Their shape can be spine-like or lamelliform with entire, angulate, dentate or spinose margin.
The moss flora of Chile contains 778 species and 88 subspecific taxa in 203 genera and 63 families. The checklist includes provincial distributions for all accepted species based on either literature reports and/or herbarium specimens. Accompanying the list is a systematic arrangement of the genera and families. Twenty-four taxa are newly reported for Chile. Five new combinations, Dicranoweisia subglobosa (Herz.) comb. nov., Pohlia looseri (Thér.) comb. nov., P. magnifica (Herz.) comb. nov., Achrophyllum anomalum (Schwaegr.) Mitt. var. pallidum (Card. & Broth.), comb. nov., and Thamnobryum crassinervium (Broth.) comb. nov. are made.
Moss diversity for the Amazon region is estimated at 39 families, 101 genera, and 311 species. A primarily specimen-based catalog provides documentation for the five countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Perú) that constitute the Amazon region as defined here. Amazonia represents the largest floristic region in the Neotropics, yet with regard to the moss flora represented there, it is less diverse than all other neotropical regions with the possible exceptions of the Pianalto of Brazil and the smaller sized Guayana Highlands.
From the ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the Japanese liverwort, Plagiochasma pterospermum (Aytoniaceae), the sesquiterpene alcohol, (+)-gymnomitr-8(12)-en-9α-ol, the triterpene alcohol, α-zeorin and two macrocyclic bis(bibenzyls), pakyonol and riccardin C have been isolated, together with p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and their structures elucidated. P. pterospermum is chemically very similar to P. appendiculata, and Reboulia hemisphaerica, belonging to the same family as that of the Plagiochasma.
This is a study of the factors that affect discharge and germination of lichen ascospores. Spore discharges from apothecia of many lichens were shown to be influenced by discharge period, collecting seasons, storage temperatures and storage periods. Tested species had more or less an endogenous rhythm of sporulation fundamentally in the dark without alternation of light and dark. Winter and spring were found to be good seasons for spore discharge of the temperate lichens studied. Even after storage for 1 year at -25℃, many lichens retained the capacity for discharging spores. The spore germination was influenced by medium composition, initial medium pH and culture temperature. Most spores of the species tested germinated on plain agar medium at pH 6 at 15℃. Spores of Letharia species could not be germinated on agar-medium, but did on Gerlite-medium; this is the first case of agar acting as germinative inhibitor(s) of lichen spores. Natural extract medium prevented spore germination of a few species. Spores of some Peltigera spp. germinated on media supplemented resins which can absorb phenolics, therefore, it would appear that spores of these species had self-inhibitor(s).