The moss family Sematophyllaceae is revised for the Chinese flora based on the study of some 500 Chinese and non-Chinese collections and type specimens. The family is shown to consist of 18 genera, 45 species, 5 varieties and 1 form. Chionostoma hainanensis Tan & Jia, Gammiella panchienii Tan & Jia and Wijkia hornschuchii var. acutifolia Tan & Jia are newly described. In addition to many new provincial records, 9 species are reported new to China including Taiwan. They are Acroporium rufum (Reinw. & Hornsch.) Fleisch., Hageniella sikkimensis Broth., Papillidiopsis ramulina (Thwaites & Mitt.) Buck & Tan, Sematophyllum subpinnatum (Brid.) Britt., Taxithelium alare Broth., Trichosteleum lutschianum (Broth. & Par.) Broth., T. singapurense Fleisch., T. stigmosum Mitt. and Wijkia surcularis (Mitt.) Crum. Papillidiopsis complanata (Dix.) Buck & Tan and Brotherella falcata (Card.) Broth. are newly reported for Japan. Twenty-five new synonyms are proposed and lectotypes are selected for Meiothecium angustirete Broth., Brotherella integrifolia Broth. and B. subintegra Broth. Nomenclaturally, 7 new combinations are proposed: Clastobryopsis planula var. delicata (Broth. ex Fleisch.) Tan & Jia, Brotherella henonii (Duby) Fleisch. var. falcatula (Broth.) Tan & Jia, Gammiella koningsbergeri (Fleisch.) Tan & Jia, Hageniella micans (Mitt.) Tan & Jia, Papillidiopsis stissophylla (Hampe) Tan & Jia, Pylaisiadelpha capillacea (Griff.) Tan & Jia, Radulina hamata var.ferriei (Card. & Thér.) Tan & Jia and Sematophyllum subpinnatum fo. tristiculum (Mitt.) Tan & Jia. Clastobryum excavatum Broth. is shown to be a heterotypic synonym of Rozea pterogonioides (Harv.) Jaeg. and belongs in the Brachytheciaceae. Lastly, the Chinese records of Malesian and Australasian taxa, such as Gammiella koningsbergeri, Radulina elegantissima (Fleisch.) Buck & Tan, Sematophyllum subcylindricum (Broth.) Sainsb., Trichosteleum mammosum (C. Muell.) Jaeg. and T. pseudomammosum Fleisch., are questioned.
Verdoornia Schust., a monotype of New Zealand, differs from all other investigated Metzgeriales in the stout, short archegonia with virtually no differentiation of a narrowed neck, and no basal constriction. It is one of a small group of primitive endemics in which there is little or no aggregation of gametangia into gynoecia and androecia; it is, equally, one of a small group of genera with exceedingly large, clavate slime papillae, secreting massive amounts of mucilage.
The implications of these three distinctive features are analyzed. They, with the peculiar large “idioblasts” in thallus cells ― structures that seem quite different from normal oil-bodies, suggest the genus is highly isolated. It seems likely that it, and several other isolated genera currently assigned to the Metzgeriales, will need to be segregated from that heterogeneous order.
The heterogeneity of the Metzgeriales s. amplo, together with the evident stenotypy and wide phylogenetic distances between most genera, suggest that the group is a very old one. It is inferred that, hence, evolution of a thallus occurred very early ― perhaps prior to evolution of leafy gametophytes, perhaps from a radial, simple, leafless gametophyte.
All Distichophyllum species reported for Australia were investigated with the following confirmed for Australia: D. crispulum (Hook. f. & Wits.) Mitt., D. longicuspis Broth., D. microcarpum (Hedw.) Mitt., D. pulchellum (Hampe) Mitt., D. rotundifolium (Hook. f. & Wits.) C. Muell. & Broth. Newly reported for Australia from north Queensland are Distichophyllwn mittenii Bosch & Lac. and D. cuspidatum (Dozy & Molk.) Dozy & Molk. Excluded from the Australian moss flora are D. assimile Broth. and D. leucoloma Broth. Descriptions, a key to the species and typification, synonymy, notes on distribution, habitat preferences and fertility are provided. A description of, and notes on, Bryobrothera crenulata (Broth. & Par.) Thér. are provided.
We used starch-gel electrophoresis to examine levels of genetic diversity at 12 enzyme loci in 21 populations of P. piliferum from five geographical regions in North America and Europe. Mean levels of genetic diversity were very low (Hs = 0.037) compared to most other mosses, averaging about half the levels we observed in other species of Polytrichum. Low genetic diversity and high genetic identity between populations made it difficult to identify any genetic structure on a large geographical scale. The only genetically distinct subgroup was a cluster comprised of four populations from the Pacific Northwest with the one population from Europe. Of the total genetic diversity, 72% was expressed as differences among populations, suggesting that gene flow via spores or asexual propagules is limited. Genetic diversity within the single population of a related taxon, P. hyperboreum, was very high (Hs = 0.203). The low genetic identity (I= 0.707) between P. piliferum and P. hyperboreum supports their recognition as distinct species.
A new classification of Dicranaceae is proposed based on comparison of non-coding chloroplast DNA trnLUAA intron and trnLUAA 3'exon -trnFGAA intergenic spacer sequences of 38 species of Dicranaceae, one species of Aongstroemiaceae, and two species of each Grimmiaceae, Pottiaceae and Orthotrichaceae included for comparison. In a phylogenetic tree constructed according to the maximum parsimony principle, the subfamilies Dicranoideae and Campylopodioideae form monophyletic groups, whereas the Rhabdoweisioideae and Dicranelloideae appear as polyphyletic. The subfamily Paraleucobryoideae is rejected as the genera belong to Dicranoideae (Paraleucobryum) or Campylopodioideae (Brothera, Campylopodiella). The species of Grimmiaceae, Pottiaceae and Orthotrichaceae form well supported clades, but their relationship to the subfamilies of Dicranaceae cannot be resolved. A close relationship of Aongstroemia, Dichodontium and Dicranella palustris is indicated. Campylopodium is transferred from Campylopodioideae to Dicranelloideae, and Dicranoweisia from Dicranoideae to Rhabdoweisioideae.
The Pakistani liverwort Plagiochasma appendiculatum biosynthesizes not only sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, β-caryophyllene and cuparene but also macrocyclic bis(bibenzyls), marchantins A, B and C which have been isolated from some Marchantia species. Their structures were identified by comparison of spectral data with those of authentic samples. This is the first isolation and identification of β-caryophyllene and marchantins A-C from the Plagiochasma species. The occurrence of marchantin series in both Plagiochasma and Marchantia species is very important in determining the evolutionary ladder of both the Aytoniaceae and the Marchantiaceae.
The n-butanol extract of the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha contained a new acyl digalactosyl glycerol, 3-O-[α-D-galactopyranosyl(1'''→6'')-β-D-galactopyranosyl]-1-O-(9Z,12Z,15Z-octadecatrienoyl)glycerol, together with two known glucosides, salidroside and β-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and a nucleoside, adenosine. The structure of the new glycoside has been characterized by the analysis of NMR data and chemical degradation.
Benzyl benzoate, dimethyl phthalate, dimethyl terephthalate, diphenylamine, and methyl p-hydroxybenzoate were isolated from the ether and methanol extracts of the Egyptian moss, Eucladium verticillatum (Brid) B. S. G., and their structures identified by 1H NMR and mass spectra. This is the first isolation of these simple aromatic compounds from the moss.
The stomatal complex in Bryophyta is morphologically more uniform than in vascular plants. Nevertheless there are many species without data about the morphology, physiology and ontogeny of their stomata. We present here a morphological and histochemical study of the stomatal complex in ten species of Crossidium, Didymodon, Pottia and Tortula (Pottiaceae).The number of stomata per capsule, their size, orientation, location, neighbouring cells, morphological type and the results of the histochemical tests for the guard and adjacent cells for starch, callose, cellulose and pectin are described. The results suggest that the morphological features of the stomata in these ten species have not any taxonomical value.
Extensive explorations for lichens have been made in semi-natural vegetation, outcrops of exposed rocks, and secondary forests of Mt. Sorak in Korea in 1995 and 1996. As a result, 32 families, 80 genera, 237 species, 1 subspecies, 1 variety and 1 form (240 taxa) are reported, of which 86 species are new to Korea and Staurolemma omphalarioides is new to Asia. Pertusaria pseudamara Moon et Shibuichi is newly described. Myelochroa coreana Y. S. Park is reduced to synonym of M. aurulenta (Tuck.) Elix & Hale. Even though more field surveys and more detailed taxonomic studies are required before a detailed analysis of the lichen flora of Korea can be made, phytogeographical features are outlined in the present paper.
The thallus of the lichen Himantormia lugubris produces barbatolic acid. The synthesis of this phenolic is not altered by acridine orange, but the dye inhibits barbatolic acid production by thalli previously heated at 70℃ for 30 min. This inhibition is reversed by the supply of exogenous cyclic AMP, since the cellular production of this cyclic nucleotide is also impeded by the dye. Heating episode is followed by the appearance of a plasmid of about 0.5 kb which can be related to its sensitivity to acridine orange.
Column and thin-layer chromatography revealed the presence of the following carotenoids in the thalli of 14 lichen species (18 specimens) from Bennet Island (East-Siberian Sea): α-, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, lutein epoxide, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, mutatoxanthin, neoxanthin, 3'-hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, rhodoxanthin, capsochrome and β-citraurin.
The total content of carotenoids ranged from 46.8 in Sphaerophorus globosus to 87.5 μg g-1 dry wt in Cetraria nigricans. The amount of the carotenoid content in the form of the provitamin of vitamin A ranged from 12.5 to 68.3% of the total carotenoid content.
Species diversity of epilithic, epigeous and epiphytic bryophyte commumties were studied based on dry weight of component species in relation to environmental gradients. Shannons H' values of epilithic communities were maximum with 4.5% of relative lightintensity and had a symmetrical bell-shape curve overall. H' values of epigeous communities were maximum with 38.0% moisture content in soil and also had a symmetrical bell-shape curve overall. On the other hand, a highly positive correlation was seen between the H' values of epiphytic bryophyte communities and the environmental deterioration in urban areas as shown by the index of environmental conditions (IE). These showed that the relations between species diversity and environmental gradients in bryophyte communities in natural conditions have a symmetrical bell-shape similar to those in higher plant communities, while in urban areas, the relation between species diversity and environmental deterioration is a straight line.
Dominance-diversity relations of bryophyte communities in natural conditions were realized even in urbanized conditions.