A revision of the Malesian species of Dicranoloma (Ren.) Ren. is presented. In order to clarify the circumscription of Dicranoloma a cladistic analysis was performed, including also species of Dicranum Hedw. and selected other genera. The number of informative characters that could be found was limited. The trees obtained are very sensitive to slight changes in the data matrix or choice of the outgroup. Both Dicranoloma and Dicranum are resolved as paraphyletic, the latter being more basal. Braunfelsia Par., the Dicnemonaceae and a clade containing Mesotus Mitt., Sclerodontium Schwägr. and Leucoloma Brid. appear to have been derived from Dicranoloma stock.
Despite its paraphyletic nature, Dicranoloma sensu Renauld (1901, 1909) was accepted. The genus is characterised by the presence of a limbidium and single-layered alar patches.
For the Malesian region 15 species are accepted in Dicranoloma. Dicranoloma armitii (C. Müll.) Par. and D. fragile Broth. are transferred to Cryptodicranum and Dicranum respectively. One new name, Dicranum psathyrum Klazenga (for Dicranoloma fragile), and two new combinations, Dicranoloma bartramianum (B.H. Allen) Klazenga and D. cutlackii (Norris & T. Kop.) Klazenga, are made. Dicranum assimile Hampe f. major Fleisch., Dicranoloma euryloma Dix. var. rugifolium Bartr., D. brachyphyllum Nog. and D. havilandii Broth. var. latifolium Van Zanten are synonymised with D. assimile (Hampe) Ren. Dicranoloma novoguineense Broth. & Geh. is synonymised with D. billardierei (Brid. ex Anon.) Par. Dicranoloma braunfelsioides Herz. is synonymised with D. blumei (Nees) Ren. Dicranum laevifolium Broth. & Geh., Dicranoloma hemineuron Dix. and D. spiniforme Bartr. are synonymised with Dicranoloma braunii (C. Müll. ex Bosch & Lac.) Par. Dicranum brevisetum Dozy & Molk. var. angustum Lac., Dicranoloma defoliatum Froehl. and D. damanhurii Tan & Mohamed are synonymised with D. brevisetum (Dozy & Molk.) Par. Dicranoloma formosanum Broth. is synonymised with D. dicarpum (Nees) Par.
Important characters to distinguish species are found in the absence or presence of a central strand in the stem, the areolation of the upper lamina, the anatomy of the costa and the number of sporogones per perichaetium.
Five species of Dicranoloma are endemic to New Guinea, D. cutlackii (Norris & T. Kop.) Klazenga occurs in New Guinea and in the Moluccas and D. havilandii Broth. is endemic to Mt. Kinabalu on Borneo. Seven species are widespread in Malesia. Most of these have occasionally been found in continental South East Asia as well. Dicranoloma braunii (C. Müll. ex Bosch. & Lac.) Par. and D. brevisetum (Dozy & Molk.) Par. are also found in India and Sri Lanka and the former is also widespread in the Pacific. Dicranoloma billardierei (Brid. ex Anon.) Par. is widely distributed in Africa, South America, the Antarctic Islands, Australasia and Malesia. Dicranoloma dicarpum (Nees) Par. is widely distributed in Australasia and also occurs in New Guinea and Taiwan. Cryptodicranum armitii has an East Malesian distribution. Dicranum psathyrum is a species of the Indian subcontinent and continental South East Asia also occurring on Luzon.
Within Malesia all species of Dicranoloma grow at high altitudes, in the submontane forest zone or higher. Four species are also found in monsoon areas. All species are facultative epiphytes, but some are more commonly epiphytic than others.
The taxa belonging to the Lecanora subfusca-group including the L. queenslandica-group that occur in South- and Central America are revised. The systematic position of the L. subfusca-group within the genus Lecanora is discussed and the morphology, anatomy and chemistry of the group is presented. The occurence of chemosyndromes and their taxonomic significance is shown. 63 taxa are accepted, six without formal description. A description is given for every taxon and a key is presented. 11 taxa are reduced into synonymy: L. paulensis Zahlbr. to L. fulvastra Kremp., L. dispersula Müll. Arg. and L. pallidofuscescens Vain. to L. galactiniza Nyl., L. cinereocarnea (Eschw.) Vain. and L. fuscescens Fée to L. leprosa Fée, L. dispersogranulata Szatala to L. pallidiflava Fée, L. caesiorugosa de Lesd. to L. subalbellaina Vain., L. argillaceofusca Müll. Arg. and L. crystalligera H. Magn. to L. subimmergens Vain., L. recubans Stirt. to L. sufurescens Fée and L. perithiodes Nyl. to L. tropica Zahlbr. Two subspecific taxa are combined to species level: L. fuegiensis (Räsänen) Guderley comb. nov. (Basionym: Lecanora chlarona f.fuegiensis Räsänen) and L. validior (Zahlbr.) Guderley comb. nov. (Basionym: Lecanora albellina var. validior Zahlbr.). Twelve taxa are reported for the first time for South America: L. arthothelinella Lumbsch, L. casuarinophila Lumbsch, L. elapheia Stizenb., L. flavidofusca Müll. Arg., L. flavidomarginata de Lesd., L. galactiniza Nyl., L. gangaleoides Nyl., L. helva Stizenb., L. parmelinoides Lumbsch, L. perplexa Brodo, L. plumosa Müll. Arg., and L. wilsonii Müll. Arg. ssp. wilsonii. Four taxa are new to the Neotropics: L. achroa Nyl., L. fuscococcinea Nyl., L. leproplaca Zahlbr. and L. subimmersa ssp. ramboldii Lumbsch & Elix. The following new taxa are described: L. cerradoensis Guderley, L. guatemalensis Guderley and L. schindleri Guderley.
Camanchaca Follm. & Peine gen. nov. (aff. Follmanniella Peine & B. Wern.) is described as new genus of Roccellaceae (Arthoniales). It is based on C. corallina Follm. & Peine sp. nov. from the rocky coast of the Atacama Desert, North Chile, where also a second species, C. ligulata Peine & Follm., occurs. Camanchaca is unique among the other genera of the family with regard to the following characters: perennial crustose thalli bearing fragile, polymorphic, fruticose pseudopodetia, irregularly interwoven cortical and reticular medullary hyphae, accumulation of considerable amounts of psoromic acid, ascomata and conidiomata often united to synascomata and synconidiomata, the first appearing as multiascal, pluricarpocentral, lecanorine discothecia of the Roccella-type, the second being protrusive and corresponding to the acervular Lecanactis-type. The chorological, sociological, ecological and developmental attributes of the new taxa are outlined. Roccella babingtonii Mont., R. difficilis Darb., R. dubia Darb. and R. montagnei Bél. should be deleted from the catalogue of Chilean lichens. However, with five endemic genera and 31 endemic species, the Atacama coastland holds its position as the primary diversity centre of the Roccellaceae s. str.
Column and thin-layer chromatography revealed the presence of the following carotenoids in the thalli of 20 species (39 specimens) of Pseudocyphellaria genus from various habitats on the South-America: α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, 3'-epilutein, zeaxanthin, lutein epoxide, antheraxanthin, echinenone, hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, celaxanthin, citranaxanthin, reticulataxanthin, violaxanthin, neoxanthin, dinoxanthin, heteroxanthin, cryptoflavin, mutatoxanthin, chrysanthemaxanthin, auroxanthin, aurochrome, 3,4,3',4'-bisdehydro-β-carotene, capsochrome, rhodoxanthin, β-apo-2'-carotenal, β-citraurin, apo-6'-lycopenal and azafrin. In the thalli of all the 20 species of the Pseudocyphellaria genus β-carotene and astaxanthin were found as constant carotenoids.
The total content of carotenoids ranged from 16.4 (specimen no. 27 of Pseudocyphellaria faveolata) to 95.9 µg g-1 dry mass (specimen no. 8 of Pseudocyphellaria aurata).
Harpalejeunea includes a central “core” of taxa with a 7 + 3-seriate axis. In addition there are several rather primitive taxa in which a more complex axis is preserved. This last group includes H. ovata (Hook.) Schiffn. H. ovata (sensu auct.) is apparently restricted to westernmost Europe; the mostly Appalachian plant, described as H. ovata subsp. integra Schust., is transferred―with some reservations―to the neotropical H. subacuta Evs., as H. subacuta subsp. integra. H. ovata, and the two subspecies of H. subacuta are taxa of low and median elevations. So is the neotropical H. stricta (Lindenb. & Gott.) Steph. Allied to these taxa is a plant of the hyperpáramo of Ecuador, H. grandistipula Schust., sp. n. This differs from all the other taxa of the H. ovata “complex” in the broad ventral corticall cells (25-32 µm wide), the large underleaves (disk 14-16 cells broad, 7-8 cells high) and the obcordate underleaves with rounded lobes 7-8 cells broad.
Definitive taxonomic resolution of outstanding problems remains difficult owing to the widespread regression of sexuality. Perianths are known from very few taxa of the complex.
The relatively unreduced H. grandistipula apparently produces no gametangia, propagating itself via generalized caducous branches. Their presence in Harpalejeunea forges a remote link to Drepanolejeunea, Leptolejeunea and Rhaphidolejeunea, on one hand, and an even more diffuse one to Lejeunea (inclusive of Microlejeunea).
Phyllodrepanium is a monospecific (P. falcifolium) neotropical genus found in Mesoamerica (from Belize to Panamá), Andean Colombia, the Guayana Highlands, the Guianas, Trinidad, and the Amazonian regions of Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil. The genus is best distinguished by its highly asymmetric leaves, terminal clusters of uniseriate propagula, and globose capsules with 16 irregularly-formed peristome teeth. Phyllodrepanium exhibits great variation in shape and size of leaf cells, the form of the leaf apex and margin, and the strength of its costa. There are two varieties of P. falcifolium: var. duidense is marked by the combination of truncate to truncate-apiculate leaves, a weak costa, and a strongly dentate-serrate margin; var. falcifolium is distinguished by the combination of acute-acuminate to obtuse-cuspidate leaves, a percurrent to excurrent costa, and entire to serrulate or weakly dentate-serrate margins.
The distribution of isozymes of superoxide dismutase in a moss Barbula unguiculata and a hornwort Anthoceros punctatus, which have been placed in phylogenetic clades closer to vascular plants than to liverworts, was studied to obtain information on the molecular evolution of SODs in land plants. Moss cells expressed Mn-SOD in mitochondria, two CuZn-SODs in cytosol and chloroplasts and no Fe-SOD. Hornwort cells expressed two CuZn-SODs as the major isozymes, three Mn-SODs, and very small amount of Fe-SODs. Especially from the view point of presence or absence of Fe-SOD, the SOD isozyme pattern of the moss and the hornwort was different from that of a liverwort Marchantia paleacea var. diptera and similar to that of most vascular plants.
Net photosynthesis of three species of Plagiomnium mosses and its relation to the light and temperature were measured with the CI-301PS. These mosses are Plagiomnium acutum, P. maximoviczii, and P. vesicatum from western Hunan, China. The experimental results were as follows: (1) The photosynthetic capacity of these mosses are about 40-63 µmol CO2 kg d w-1 sec-1; (2) The net photosynthesis (Pn) increased with the temperature rise from -15℃ to 25(30)℃. The maximum of Pn was usually reached between 25-30℃. (3) The Pn increased with the enhancement of light (PAR), between 0-400 µmol m-2 sec-1, the maximum of Pn reached in PAR 200-400. The compensation point of light is within PAR 10-20. The light and temperature response models and curves were fitted by the computer. The results indicate that the mosses growing in low light habitat have higher chlorophyll content, low a : b ratio. The method to use the CI-301PS to measure the moss photosynthesis was also discussed in the paper.