A monographic study of the genus Thelotrema in Japan is made. The morphology, anatomy, chemistry, ecology and distribution of Japanese 16 species are discussed. A key to species identification and distribution maps of the species are presented. Five species are described as new to science: T. boninense Tat.Matsumoto, T. canescens Tat.Matsumoto, T. grossomarginatum Tat.Matsumoto, T. infundibularis Tat.Matsumoto and T. nipponicum Tat.Matsumoto. T. fauriei is a synonym of T. similans. The first record from Japan is made for the following five species: T. alborosellum, T. dilatatum, T. imperfectum, T. nureliyum and T. patens. Genus Thelotrema in Japan is divided into two sections by thalline exciple and paraphyses characters: sect. Thelotrema and sect. Asteristion (Leight.) Tat.Matsumoto stat. nov.
Column and thin-layer chromatography revealed the presence of the following carotenoids in the thalli of 6 species (45 specimens) of Cetrelia from various habitats in Eurasia: α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, 3'-epilutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene-5,6-epoxide, lutein epoxide, antheraxanthin, echinenone, hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, α-doradexanthin, astaxanthin, violaxanthin, flavoxanthin, mutatoxanthin, neoxanthin, capsochrome and apo-6'-lycopenal. Violaxanthin was as constant carotenoid in all species of Cetrelia examined.
The total content of carotenoids ranged from 8.84 (specimen no. 9 of C. chicitae) to 54.10μg g-1 dry mass (specimen no. 2 of C. braunsiana).
Amplification products of both large and small subunits of rubisco have been constructed with lichen thalli of Cladonia verticillaris and Evernia prunastri and their respective photobionts, using as primers oligonucleotides of Spinacea oleracea (large) and Arabidopsis thaliana (small) genes. Although a pattern of multiple bands appeared by the southern analysis of the large as well as the small subunits, hybridation experiments revealed that only one band exclusively hybridized, in both cases, with the corresponding amplified oligonucleotide.
Ascospore germination and hyphal growth of the following lichen genera were tested in various concentrations of NaCl: Arthonia, Buellia, Caloplaca, Cladonia, Graphis, Lecanora, Myelochroa, Ochrolechia, Parmelia, Porpidia, Ramalina, Stereocaulon and Usnea. At high NaCl concentrations spore germination and hyphal growth were inhibited, and the shape of the hyphae was twisted and gnarled; their tips were more swollen, and the biomass of hyphae much reduced. No spores of the tested species germinated at 1.2 M NaCl. The influence of NaCl concentration on spore germination and hyphal growth of the tested lichens was not related to their habitats.
Distinction between the Hypnaceae and the Sematophyllaceae is controversial. Taxonomic position of the genera Brotherella, Wijkia and its allies is still fluctuating and has been repeatedly discussed. A phylogenetic study was carried out to investigate the phylogenetic position of the genera Brotherella, Wijkia and their allies, based on phylogenetic analyses of the chloroplast ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) gene data. Chloroplast rbcL genes from eight mosses were newly sequenced. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by neighbor-joining (NJ), minimum-evolution (ME), maximum-parsimony (MP) and maximum-likelihood (ML) methods for 30 rbcL sequences. The results suggest that the genus Brotherella and its allies (Pylaisiadelpha tenuirostris, Wijkia hornschuchii and Heterophyllium nematosum) are monophyletic with high bootstrap support. Hypnum tristo-viride is also included in the Brotherella clade. The Sematophyllaceae (sensu Seki 1968) are paraphyletic to the Brotherella clade. These results support the conclusion that the Sematophyllaceae (sensu present), including Brotherella and its allies, are monophyletic. The present study also suggests that the genus Entodon should be placed in a clade sister to the Sematophyllaceae (sensu present). The results show the need to reconsider the familial circumscription of the Hypnaceae and Sematophyllaceae.
Before this study, 12 species were reported for Australia in these 4 genera, while now this figure stands at 10 species. Previously Hookeriopsis was reported only as a genus for Australia. A new species, Calyprochaeta otwayensis, is described from Victoria. Eriopus tasmanicus Broth. and Calyptrochaeta apiculata (Hook. f. & Wils.) Vitt var. tasmanica (Broth.) Fife are considered to be synonymous with Calyptrochaeta apiculata; Sauloma zetterstedtii (C. Muell.) Jaeg. is a syn. of S. tenella (Hook f. & Wils.) Mitt. and Daltonia pusilla Hook. f. & Wils. is a syn. of D. splachnoides (Sm.) Hook. & Tayl. The following new combination is proposed: - Calyptrochaeta brassii (Bartr.) Streim. Daltonia contorta C. Muell. and Hookeriopsis utacamundiana (Mont.) Broth. are new records for Australia. Deleted from the Australian moss flora are Calyptrochaeta cristata (Hedw.) Desv., Daltonia angustifolia Dozy & Molk., Hookeria acutifolia Hook. and Grev. and H. lucens (Hedw.) Sm. An amended key to all Australian genera of the family is also provided together with information for the Australian species on distribution, ecology and fertility.
A collection of Splachnobryum rostratum Broth. & Par. from Sierra Leone with exceptionally well-developed, closely spaced peristome teeth clearly exhibits a 2 : 3 haplolepidous peristomial pattern. The relationship of the Splachnobryaceae is with the Pottiales rather than the Funariales, as supported not only by its haplolepidous peristome, but also by its type of stomata and pattern of rhizoid insertion.
The moss flora of the upper Bureya River includes 289 species and 2 varieties. A discussion on the biodiversity and phytogeography of this area is supplemented by an annotated list of the species. The study shows that the Upper Bureya tributary is the northern border of about 40 East Asian moss species.
Leucobryum glaucum (Hedw.) Ångstr. protonemata and sporelings were studied in order to determine and describe fundamental ontogenetic patterns. Spores were cultured under controlled, axenic conditions and developmental stages were examined using light microscopy techniques that allowed observations in multiple optical planes. Germination is exosporic, followed by a distinct developmental sequence that constructs the basal protonemal assemblage of chloronemal filaments. Extensive branching from side branch initials and transformations of filament types yield a mature, heterotrichous protonema composed of prostrate chloronema and caulonema, a monopodial system of erect chloronemal branches, and thigmotropic rhizoids. Target cells, which form on filaments that are intermediate in type between chloronema and caulonema or on distinct caulonemal filaments undergo a specific, uniform pattern of sporeling ontogeny which is characterized by the production of an apical initial with three cutting faces that segments briefly, then is transformed into an adult obovoidal apical cell. Repeated adult segmentation and merophyte development result in a juvenile L. glaucum gametophyte. Traditionally, Leucobryum sporelings have been classified as representatives of the Bryum type. However, the detailed ontogenetic patterns of L. glaucum protonemata and sporelings reveal characters that not only define Bryum type sporelings, but also Funaria type sporelings. This suggests that more emphasis be placed on the fundamental ontogenetic patterns of protonemata and sporelings as criteria for classifying basic moss sporeling types.
Six hepatics, Aphanolejeunea paucifolia (Spruce) Reiner, Harpalejeunea heterodonta Evs., Lophocolea heterophylla (Schrad.) Dum., Mytilopsis albifrons Spruce, Symphyogyna circinata Nees & Mont. and Trocholejeunea bahamensis (Evs.) Schust., and six mosses, Aongstroemia julacea (Hook.) Mitt., A. longipes (Somerf.) B. S. G., Barbula afrofontana (C. Müll.) Broth., Dicranella standleyi Bartr., Lepidopilum cubense (Sull.) Mitt. and Streptopogon cavifolius Mitt. are new records for Brazil. Three mosses are new records for different states of Brazil: Donnellia commutata (C. Müll.) Buck for Rio Grande do Sul, Fissidens amoenus C. Müll. for São Paulo, and Paranapiacabaea paulista Buck & Vital for Paraná. The hepatic, Strepsilejeunea apicidens Herz. (in schedula) and the mosses Hemiragis aurea (Brid.) Kindb. and Pterogoniopsis cylindrica C. Müll. were never identified for Brazil. They are misidentifications of already known Brazilian species. Lindbergia patentifolia Dix from São Paulo State is also a misidentification of our very common moss Haplocladium microphyllum (Hedw.) Broth.
In part I, the 480 species names of Plagiochila recorded from Asia are listed alphabetically. Each is provided with the reference to its original publication and information on the location of the types. For synonyms the correct name of the species is indicated, and for the recognized species, illustrations are cited. In part II, the recognized species in Asia are listed alphabetically with synonyms, and accordinig to the present knowledge, 132 in total.
Chiloscyphus aequifolius (Nees & Mont.) Hässel comb. nov., here described and illustrated, is considered as an independent species and excluded from C. semiteres (Lehm.) Lehm. & Lindenb. The synonyms Lophocolea heterophylloides var. beta minor Nees, L. krauseana Steph., L. fernandeziensis Steph., L. krauseana var. dissecta Herz. and L. calbucensis Herz. are discussed with the addition of L. angulata Steph. p. p. and L. bisetula Steph. p. p. A new asexual reproductive device, the microcladia, present in this taxon, is described for the Geocalycaceae. C. angulatus (Steph.) J. J. Engel & R. M. Schust., is proposed as a new synonym of C. integrifolius (Lehm. & Lindenb.) Lehm. & Lindenb.
Sixteen species of Radula were recognized in a collection made by Mr. Marko Lewis in Bolivia from 1983 to 1986. This paper provides a list of species with the habitat, altitude, and distribution. Eight species (R. carringtonii, R. frondescens, R. gottscheana, R. javanica, R. mazarunensis, R. opaciuscula, R. schaefer-verwimpii, and R. tectiloba) are new additions to the hepatic flora of Bolivia.
The early sporocyte of Dumortiera hirsuta contains a single large plastid. Plastid division occurs in advance of nuclear division and the four resultant plastids migrate to the future spore domains. In many cases, the four daughter plastids continued to divide before nuclear division. The cytoplasm becomes shallowly lobed around the four domains and each domain contains at least one plastid. Positioning of plastids and cytoplasmic lobing seem to establish the meiotic division planes before nuclear division. Monoplastidic meiosis, which can be considered to be a symplesiomorphic character, is typical of mosses and hornworts but is known only sporadically in isolated taxa of liverworts. Meiosis of Dumortiera seems to represent an evolutionary stage that is transitional between monoplastidic and polyplastidic meiosis.
A new compound phenanthrene type was isolated from the methanolic extract of the liverwort Marchantia tosana, together with the bibenzyl lunularin, p-hydroxybenzaldeyde and stigmasterol. The structure of the new compound was established as 2,7-dimethoxy-3-hydroxyphenanthrene on the basis of its spectroscopic data. From the methanolic extract of the liverwort Plagiochasma japonica which has not been investigated before the diterpene 2-phyten-1-ol, the triterpene α-zeorin, the macrocyclic bis-bibenzyl riccardin D and stigmasterol have been isolated.