The ten Australian genera not dealt with in the Sematophyllaceae Part 1 are discussed. Eight of these are the primarily tropical or subtropical genera (Acroporium, Clastobryum, Macrohymenium, Meiotheciella, Meiothecium, Papillidiopsis, Radulina, Trichosteleum) with a total of 17 species. Many of these are confined to northeast Queensland with only a few extending south to subtropical northeastern New South Wales. In addition the genera Rhaphidorrhynchium, with a single species and two varieties, and Warburgiella, with three species, are discussed. Although these latter two genera extend into the tropical and subtropical regions they are more widespread in southern temperate Australia. Illustrations of all species and maps representing the Australian distributions are provided.
The genus Pylaisia (Hypnaceae, Musci) is taxonomically revised, using more than 2,000 specimens, some of which are in TNS collection (including specimens collected by myself and given to me by many collaborators in the present study) and the others are borrowed from various herbaria all over the world. Among the morphological observations, special attention is paid to peristome structure by means of the scanning electron microscope. The relationships among members of the Hypnaceae subfamily Pylaisioideae are discussed. The monospecific genus Giraldiella is synonymized with Pylaisia. The peristome structures of Pylaisia are classified into five types mainly based on the degree of reduction and adhesion of the endostome. Fifteen species of Pylaisia are recognized conclusively: (1) Pylaisia polyantha (Hedw.) Schimp., (2) Pylaisia steerei (Ando & Higuchi) Ignatov, (3) Pylaisia curviramea Dixon, (4) Pylaisia levieri (Müll. Hal.) Arikawa, (5) Pylaisia extenta (Mitt.) A. Jaeger, (6) Pylaisia falcata Schimp., (7) Pylaisia kunisawae (Ando) Arikawa, (8) Pylaisia obtusa Lindb., (9) Pylaisia selwynii Kindb., (10) Pylaisia brotheri Besch., (11) Pylaisia subcircinata Cardot, (12) Pylaisia cristata Cardot, (13) Pylaisia intricata (Hedw.) Schimp., (14) Pylaisia stereodontoides Broth. & Yasuda ex Iisiba, and (15) Pylaisia nana Mitt. Six species of Pylaisia are newly treated as synonyms of other species: Pylaisia coreana is synonymized to P. polyantha, P. macrotis to P. falcata, P. sublaevidens to P. obtusa, P. subimbricata to P. brotheri, P. robusta to P. cristata, and P. cardotii to P. stereodontoides. Pylaisia australis and Pylaisiella frahmii are transferred to Platygyrium and Platygyriella, respectively. Pylaisia latifolia is synonymized with Homomallium connexum. A key for identification of the species is provided, and for each species synonymy, description, illustration, representative specimens examined, habitat, distribution, and diagnostic characters are given.
Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hultén's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.
Plants first reported from Japan as Brachydontium olympicum (E.Britton) T.T.McIntosh & J.R.Spence are described as a new species, B. noguchii. However, the Japanese plants described as B. polycarpum H. Akiyama are found to be identical with B. olympicum.
A most striking feature of cloud forests is the pendent epiphytic bryophyte communities. Of those, the majority are pleurocarpous moss species, chiefly of the Meteoriaceae, a family mainly occurring in the Southern Hemisphere. The pendent life-form was regarded as a prominent character uniting this family. Recent molecular and morphological investigations challenge this concept, as other clear morphological characters for the family are missing. We analysed a selected set of species, representing the major pendent genera and their relatives. Molecular analyses of the psbT-H and the trnL-F regions of the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), together with ITS2 sequence data of the nuclear ribosomal transcription unit (nrDNA), reveal that the pendent life form has evolved independently in several moss lineages, as epiphytism and the pendent life form are presumed to be derived characters. The congruent trees based on either cpDNA or nrDNA, as well as the combined data set, resolve the investigated pendent species mostly as members of the Brachytheciaceae, Meteoriaceae, and Lembophyllaceae. An improved understanding of the morphological characters will provide new definitions of these families. Characters which have been earlier used to delimit the Meteoriaceae, such as the upright capsule, or papillose leaf cells are suggested as adaptations for an epiphytic life and are therefore not useful in taxonomic classification. This emphasises the need to reevaluate the morphological circumscription of the respective families, especially with regard to the Meteoriaceae.
Fossils of three species of Atrichum were discovered in Baltic amber (Eocene). These species are described as new extinct species. All are characterized by plane, not undulate leaves, unicellular teeth along the leaf margin, and small size, and have small laminal cells and no teeth at the dorsal side of the lamina. The species show close affinities to very rare extant species in Mexico, Puerto Rico and southern China, that are found in pine-oak forests resembling the amber forest. This distribution pattern is found in several other Baltic amber mosses. It is supposed that the species of Atrichum were derived from Eocene progenitors, stayed in comparable habitats, and have underdone partial extinction.
The rare, redlisted liverwort Myriocolea irrorata Spruce (Lejeuneaceae), known only from type material collected in the Ecuadorian Andes in 1857, was recollected along two tributaries of the Río Pastaza, Ecuador, including the Río Topo where the species was originally discovered. Myriocolea Spruce is a monospecific genus characterized by a very unusual suit of morphological features, including purely athecal, Radula type branching, transverse leaves without (?) lobule, underleaves without a trace of rhizoids and rhizoid disc, male bracts with numerous (up to 7) antheridia, and the extremely high number of clustered gynoecia. New observations on branching, stem anatomy, leaf cells, oil bodies, leaf and underleaf morphology, gametoecia, sporophyte morphology, geographical distribution, and habitat of Myriocolea are presented. Leaf segmentation in Myriocolea is pendular, not spiral as previously reported. Cladistic analysis has shown that the genus belongs in the Cololejeunea clade and is sister to the South American endemic genus Myriocoleopsis. Myriocolea irrorata grows abundantly along the Río Topo on small, periodically submerged Cuphaea bombonasae shrubs, together with the rare Myriocoleopsis gymnocolea. The restricted range of Myriocolea irrorata is explained by the unusual topography and geomorphology of the habitat of the species. The planned construction of a hydroelectric dam on the Río Topo justifies the placement of Myriocolea irrorata on the World Red List.
Five species of Odontoschisma are represented in Asia and the Pacific: O. denudatum (Mart.) Dumort., O. grosseverrucosum Steph., O. purpuratum Herzog, O. sandvicense (Ängstr.) A.Evans, and O. subjulaceum Aust. Two synonyms are proposed and a key to the species in this region is provided. Odontoschisma spaghni (Dicks.) Dumort. is excluded from this region and O. grandistipulum Steph. is treated as a doubtful species.
The distributions of seven species of Schistochilaceae in China are discussed. A new species, Schistochila minor C. Gao & Y.-H. Wu, is described from Taiwan, China. A new combination, Gottschea macrodonta (Nichols.) C. Gao & Y.-H. Wu, is proposed based on Schistochila macrodonta Nichols. owing to its lacking of underleaves.
Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and chlorophyll a+b concentrations, as well as chlorophyll a/b ratios and assessment of chlorophyll a integrity (OD 435/OD 415, OD 665/OD 665 after acidification) were determined in order to compare the short-term effects of copper, zinc and mercury on four lichen photobionts (Trebouxia erici, T. irregularis, Myrmecia biatorellae, Coccomyxa sp.) and the related alga Leptosira terrestris. Chlorophyll a was sensitive to presence of copper and mercury, but less to zinc. Chlorophyll b increased in response to copper exposure, as in the case of zinc, but the effect was less pronounced, resulting in a significant decrease of the chlorophyll a/b ratio, while the total chlorophyll content was almost unchanged. Mercury, on other hand, caused a decrease in both chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll content was a useful parameter for assessment of metal stress. Differences between metals and between tested concentrations were more pronounced than differences due to taxa.
When the photobiont T. erici was cultivated on media with metal supplements, long-term exposure to metals decreased growth of cultures. We observed a complex influence of metals on chlorophyll in two wk old cultures. Chlorophyll a was more sensitive to metals than chlorophyll b, and its decrease was attributable to conversion of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b by copper and zinc, inhibition of chlorophyll synthesis by mercury, and even 3 mM zinc, as well as by increased phaeophytinisation.
A study of carotenoids in 19 specimens of Cladonia grayi from North America revealed the presence of β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein, antheraxanthin, hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, violaxanthin, mutatoxanthin, neoxanthin and capsochrome. The total carotenoid content and percentage content of lutein, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin and violaxanthin in investigated materials were dependent on the degree of insolation.
The effect of the phycobiont Trebouxia arboricola on changes in pigmentation of Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. were investigated in respect of the size the phycobiont and photosynthesising pigments in various seasons of the year in insolated and shady places. Observations on the influence of the substratum on carotenoid composition in the phycobiont in natural conditions were supplemented with the results obtained in the laboratory.