Catalog of the mosses of Japan compiled by the author in 1991 was revised. This new catalog lists all names of genera and species of mosses described or reported from Japan, based on all literature available to the author up to the end of January 2004. The new catalog is comprised of 1,135 species of mosses belonging to 332 genera. These taxa are listed in alphabetical order. Each valid epithet is followed by author citation, literature, distributional area in Japan, and Japanese name.
The moss flora of Mongolian Gobi Altai and two adjacent localities in the Mongolian Altai is studied and analyzed. It includes 164 species and one variety of mosses belonging to 72 genera and 21 families. Most of species are restricted to the higher elevations in mountains where wet habitats are available and antropogenic influence is no so strong. However, about 15 species can tolerate really xeric environment, occurring on low rock outcrops in open desert and desert-facing, rocky foothills of mountains. The rather rich moss floras of two isolated sites provide evidence for a more diverse past vegetation in the Gobi area.
The genus Cleistocarpidium has been revised to include two species, C. palustre (for which a lectotype is designated) and C. japonicum (a new combination), based on examination of all available type specimens and those from the range of distribution. The background, rationale and characters supporting the revision have been discussed.
The diversity of moss flora of Singapore is briefly reviewed. Twenty new moss records have been documented in the past six years. Two species, Trichosteleum fleischeri B.C.Tan, B.-C.Ho & B.K.-B.Seah and Splachnobryum temasekensis B.C.Tan, B.-C.Ho & B.K.-B.Seah, are described as new to science with the type locality in Singapore.
For six of the seven species of the genus Jensenia (J. pisicolor, J. connivens, J. erythropus, J. difformis, J. spinosa and J. decipiens [Pallaviciniaceae, Hepaticophytina, Bryophyta]) geomolecular divergence patterns are evaluated by comparison of the cpDNA trnTUGU-trnLUAA 5' exon intergenic spacer and trnLUAA intron and nrDNA ITS2 sequences. All studied Jensenia taxa are characterized by a low infra- and interspecific sequence variation in the investigated DNA regions. The species are differentiated by a sequence divergence of 0-2.0% (trnT-L spacer) and 0-1.3% (trnL intron and ITS2), respectively. A comparison with the molecular data of five Pallavicinia s.str. species supports the delimitation of Jensenia as a distinct taxon.
Sectio Robustae Carl emend. Hässel comprises Plagiochila hookeriana Lindenb. and P. latifrons Gottsche & Hampe. P. hookeriana has several new synonyms: Jungermannia duricaulis Hook. f. & Taylor, P. duricaulis (Hook. f. & Taylor) Hook. f. & Taylor, P. leguillovii Gottsche, P. longissima Steph., P. robusta Steph. (the lectotype species of the section), P. arguta Steph., P. robusta fo. arguta (Steph.) Herzog, P. skottsbergii Steph. p. p. and P. valdiviae Herzog. Sectio Equitantes Carl emend. Hässel comprises only P. equitans Gottsche, a species here recorded for the first time for South Georgia Is. All taxa are described, discussed and illustrated based on the study of numerous specimens.
Plagiochila stricta, previously known only from the Neotropics and Macaronesia, is newly found in Madagascar, Africa, thereby extending the range of Plagiochila sect. Arrectae considerably. Maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of a nrITS sequence alignment with sequences of P. sects. Arrectae, Rutilantes and Fuscoluteae (outgroup) lead to similar trees. A nrITS sequence of Plagiochila stricta from Madagascar is placed in an unsupported monophyletic lineage with P. stricta sequences from Macaronesia, Costa Rica and Ecuador and nested in a robust clade with other representatives of Plagiochila sect. Arrectae.
Column, thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of the following carotenoids in the thalli of 12 species (27 specimens) of Peltigera from various ecological niches: α-, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, diatoxanthin, antheraxanthin, echinenone, 3'-, 4'-hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, β-doradexanthin, neoxanthin, rubixanthin, astaxanthin, violaxanthin and capsochrome. All species with cyanobacteria as their photobiont, irrespective of the site from which they were collected, contained β-carotene and zeaxanthin, and those with green-algae as their phycobiont contained β-carotene and lutein.