Since the 1899 Schiffner publication describing Fossombronia japonica Schiffn., 16 taxa of Fossombronia Raddi have been reported from Eastern Asia and Oceania. Of these, seven were named as new taxa. Although several regional studies have been published, no study of the genus has ever been undertaken for the entire region. We have conducted a comprehensive study of the gametophyte and sporophyte characters of all the taxa previously reported from the region to determine the diversity of the genus in the study area. Our study of type specimens has been complemented with examinations of extensive collections of Fossombronia from numerous herbaria. This survey has shown that several gametophyte characters, such as oil body morphology, thallus lobe size, shape and insertion, caulocalyx morphology and gametangial arrangement are systematically important characters. Examining more than 70 characters combined from both generations, we conclude that there are only seven species of Fossombronia represented in the study area. These are F. alaskana Steere & Inoue, F. caledonica Steph., F. himalayensis Kashyap, F. japonica, F. macrocalyx Steph., F. mylioides Inoue, and F. pusilla (L.) Nees.
It is also concluded that F. cristula Austin, postulated by previous investigators to be synonymous with F. japonica, is a distinct taxon that is endemic to the eastern United States.
A taxonomic revision of the genus Syntrichia Brid. (Pottiaceae, Musci) in the Mediterranean Region and Macaronesia has been carried out, thus contributing to knowledge of its distinguishing morphological characters, geographic distribution and nomenclature. Some 3000 specimens, including the most of type material, were studied. An identification key, morphological descriptions, photographs and numerous observations on taxonomic and nomenclatural problems of the 23 taxa accepted in the study area, are provided. New records for some countries of the Mediterranean basin and Macaronesia are given. Five new synonyms are proposed. The designations of 11 new lectotypes are included and the name Syntrichia aciphylla var. calva J.J. Amann is excluded from the genus Syntrichia.
The occurrence of Plagiochila spinulosa in Madeira Island was questionable according to previous authors and our revisions of herbarium specimens collected in the Madeiran laurel forest, which belong to either P. bifaria, P. stricta, or the endemic P. maderensis. Recent fieldwork carried out above the edge of the laurel forest between 1300 and 1400 m directed our attention to some Plagiochila populations that presented a distinct appearance in the field. A first morphological investigation revealed that these populations could belong to P. spinulosa. In addition to morphological characters observed with light and scanning electron microscopy, the essential oil composition and sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA are compared between the putative P. spinulosa and further Plagiochila species of sect. Arrectae, including maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of the molecular data.
Essential oils isolated by distillation-extraction from two collections of the putative P. spinulosa were analysed by GC and GC-MS. Sabinene (19-27%) was the dominant component of both samples, in contrast to all other previously analysed Plagiochila species. In the molecular trees a clade is observed that comprises P. spinulosa from Belgium and the UK, and three analysed specimens of the putative P. spinulosa from Madeira Island. This clade is well distinguished from the other species of sect. Arrectae with 75-81% bootstrap support. The morphological, phytochemical and molecular results thus confirm the presence of Plagiochila spinulosa in Madeira Island, which seems to be confined to communities in the mesotemperate hyper-humid bioclimatic zone above the limits of the laurel forest.
A total of 36 species names of Radula have been recorded from New Zealand and Tasmania. Of this number only 15 are recognized: Radula acutiloba Steph., R. aneurismalis (Hook.f. & Taylor) Gottsche, Lindenb. & Nees, R. australiana K. Yamada, R. buccinifiera (Hook.f. & Taylor) Gottsche, Lindenb. & Nees, R. dentifolia Grolle, R. grandis Steph., R. marginata Taylor ex Gottsche, Lindenb. & Nees, R. novae-hollandiae Hampe ex Lehm., R. physoloba Mont., R. plicata Mitt., R. retroflexa Taylor, R. sainsburiana E. A. Hodgs., R. scariosa Mitt., R. tasmanica Steph., and R. uvifera (Hook.f. & Taylor) Gottsche, Lindenb. & Nees. Seven new synonyms are proposed. Radula cavifolia Hampe ex Gottsche, Lindenb. & Nees, R. madagascariensis Mont., R. tabularis Steph., and R. caespitosa Steph., are excluded from this region.
A revision of Radula in Hawaii is presented. Radula curvilobula sp. nov., R. hawaiica sp. nov., and R. mauiensis sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Seven other species are recognized: R. acutangula Steph., R. cavifolia Hampe ex Gottsche, Lindenb. & Nees, R. cordata Mitt., R. gracilis Mitt. ex Steph., R. javanica Gottsche, R. reflexa Nees & Mont., and R. sullivantii Aust. Radula cordiloba Taylor and R. lejeuneaformis Steph. are synonymized with R. javanica and R. gracilis respectively. Photomicrographs of the ventral view of the plants are given for all species in this region. A key to the species in the region is provided.
Cheilolejeunea decursiva (Sande Lac) R.M. Schust., which is widespread in tropical Africa and rarely known from tropical Asia, and the tropical Asian Cheilolejeunea ventricosa (Schiffn.) X.L. He, are reported for the first time for Australia. Both new records are described and illustrated in detail. A key to the known species of Australian Cheilolejeunea is also presented.
Fertile plants of Racomitrium patagonicum Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra, known only from southern South America, are described and illustrated from collections made in Chile. The species was originally described as new from sterile plants collected in Argentina, Chile and the Falkland Islands. A map showing the revised distribution of the species is presented.
A first catalogue of the mosses (Bryophyta s.str.), liverworts (Marchantiophyta), and hornworts (Anthocerotophyta) of Sulawesi (formerly Celebes), Indonesia, is presented. The checklist is based on published records and a few unpublished collections. In total, 476 species are listed, including 340 of moss (in 145 genera), 134 of liverwort (in 46 genera), and 2 of hornwort (in 2 genera). One liverwort and four moss species are only known from Sulawesi. As compared with other major islands of Malesia, the number of bryophyte species recorded from Sulawesi is low. Species numbers of liverworts and mosses from Borneo, New Guinea, and the Philippines are about two to six times higher. Several large bryophyte genera are poorly represented on Sulawesi or are absent, due presumably to undercollecting. This catalogue will hopefully stimulate more work on the neglected bryophyte flora of Sulawesi. Two names, Calyptrochaeta perlimbata (Dixon) B.C.Tan & B.-C.Ho, comb. nov., and Macromitrium novorecurvulum B.C.Tan & B.-C.Ho, nom. nov, are newly proposed.
A revised cheklist of the bryophytes species for Rio de Janeiro state recognizes 1036 taxa (698 mosses, 333 liverworts and 5 hornworts), distributed among 309 genera and 95 families. The distribution within the state by counties and the altitudinal range in Brazil are provided for each taxon. The information included in this paper was based on the Yano catalogues (1981, 1984, 1985), Gradstein & Costa (2003), new publications, and collections of the RB and HRJ herbaria. From the 91 counties of Rio de Janeiro state only 34 presented species records being, the remaining other counties lack information. Two species are new records for Brazil: Campylopus albidovirens Herzog and Homaliodendron piniforme (Brid.) Enroth.; and nine are new for Rio de Janeiro state: Calypogeia uncinulatula Herzog, Drepanolejeunea araucariae Steph., Meiothecium boryanum (Müll. Hal.) Mitt., Metzgeria agnewiae Kuwah., Metzgeria scyphigera A. Evans, Odontoschisma denudatum (Nees) Dumort., Pilotrichella rigida (Müll. Hal.) Besch., Pohlia elongata Hedw., and Taxiphyllum taxirameum (Mitt.) M. Fleisch. About 197 species were listed which, were recently reduced to synonymy, and 83 were excluded for being errouneous or doubtful records.
Bunodophoron ramuliferum (I.M.Lamb) Wedin is chemically analysed. The occurrence of isousnic acid is confirmed and the CD- and ORD-spectra of (+)-isousnic, (+)-usnic, (+)-placodiolic and (+)-pseudoplacodiolic acids are shown. Copper complexes of (+)-isousnic and (+)-usnic acids are described.