Sweet tastes enhance cerebral oxygenation during gum chewing. However, it is unknown whether sweet tasting gum (Sweet) (versus tasteless gum (Tasteless)) enhances cerebral oxygenation after chewing. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of chewing a piece of gum sweetened with a non-caloric sweeter on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) circulation. Two trials were conducted in which 11 young volunteers (nine women and two men; mean age, 20.9 years; SD 0.9) chewed tasteless gum and sweet gum for three minutes each at a rate of 70 chew repetitions per minute (rpm). Three-minute breaks were interleaved between the trials. Oxyhemoglobin concentration (OxyHb) in the left PFC was monitored by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We found a significant increase in OxyHb with Sweet gum compared with Tasteless gum, both during (p < 0.05) and 1min after gum chewing (p < 0.05). These results suggest that sweet taste with a non-caloric sweeter enhances cerebral circulation during and after gum chewing.
Repetitive movement, static posture, inappropriate computer workstation and inadequate lighting are the most common issues that have been found during operating computers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of active stretching and working posture correction in improving psycho-physiological responses among computer operators. The randomized pre-test and post-test control group design was applied in this study, involving 26 subjects as computer operators. The subjects were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 13 subjects working with conventional conditions, and Group 2 consisted of 13 subjects who were given intervention. Interventions provided included active stretching for two minutes, after two hours working on the computer and correcting the wrong posture from sideways view into straight view. The psychophysiological response was measured by reaction time, musculoskeletal complaints, and eye fatigue. This study found that the mean difference of reaction time before and during computer working practice was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The mean difference of musculoskeletal complaints between groups was statistically significant (p < 0.01). The difference of the mean difference in eye fatigue between groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.088). Ergonomic intervention in terms of active stretching for two minutes after two hours of working time and neck-working postures correction improved the reaction time and decreased musculoskeletal complaints.
Minor changes to surroundings with respect to foods can change the evaluation of food portions, food selection and taste. This study aimed to investigate the effects of dish colour on taste perception. Thirty-one subjects participated in this experiment. The subjects were asked to evaluate the sweetness, saltiness, sourness and their overall liking for the food (popcorn) on 9-point Likert scales, based on its appearance. Pictures of popcorn in dishes in five different colours (black, blue, red, white, and yellow) were presented on a computer screen. The popcorn in the yellow dish had a higher overall liking rate and was evaluated as having significantly higher sweetness than the popcorn in other coloured dishes (p < 0.05, respectively). These results suggest that a yellow dish reduces the yellowness of the food (popcorn) and the acidity, then increases the sweetness.