We did the principal component analysis regarding the food expenditure patterns between the two countries based on the methodology of the first report, as we did the consumption expenditure patterns in the second report. In this third report, we discussed more detail on the patterns of food expenditure between the two countries. It can be summarized briefly as follows. The expenditure ratios in Japan about cereals and cereal products, fresh and processed vegetables, and fresh fruits are higher than in America. The characteristics of the food expenditure patterns of income class and age class in America are more evident than those of in Japan. The food expenditure patterns are quite different between the two countries.
We eat and dine everyday. Then how the concept of “dining” is perceived by people? The purpose of this study is to find out the process of acquiring the concept about “dining” through questionnaires concerning “a typical image of dining scene, ” “a typical image of dining script, ” and their reasons. The sample consisted of 188 second-, 211 fourth-, 201 sixth-, and 154 eighth grade children, 293 college students, and 246 parents whose children are elementary school pupils. The results are as follows : (1) The typical image commonly shared by the adult sample was to eat nutrious and delicious foods, chatting with their family or intimate friends in the evening at home. (2) Second grade children were found to attach much importance to the physiological function of “dining, ” sixth and eighth grade children to the function of “dining” to the family life, college students to the more general social function of “dining, ” and parents to both physiological and social functions. In other words, the concept of dining develops from the physiological function through the familial to the social functions with ages. (3) Females attached much importance to all functions of “dining” than makes.
This paper is concerned with the penetrating force P of Japanese needles, and the shrinking effect of cloths on P of Japanese needles. The results obtained are as follows : (1) The following Eq. (1) is applicable to the penetrating force P of Japanese needles into cloths. P=2πktan3θ/sinθ al2 (1-a/l+a2/3l2) (1) where, a : thickness (mm) of sewn cloths, 1 : penetrated length (mm) of the pointed head of needle from the upward surface of sewn cloths, θ : a half vertical angle (°) of the needle, k : constant (g/mm3), which relates to the force resistance of the needle in its penetrating direction. (2) The value of P of shrunk cloths is smaller than that of unshrunk cloths. It results from the decrease of the value of k and al2 (1-a/l+a2/3l2) in Eq. (1) by the shrinking treatment of sewn cloths. (3) Each shear stiffness G, bending rigidity B and coefficient of friction MIU of cloths corresponds well to k. And the values of G, B and MIU of shrunk cloths decrease mostly compared with the ones of unshrunk cloths, this is caused by the falling-off of value of k in Eq. (1) by shrinking of cloths.
An attachment of the hydrophobic or hydrophilic carbon black particles to substrates of fiber materials (cellulose, polyester and nylon) and detachment from substrates in aqueous solutions of fatty acid soap were discussed as to be associated with interfacial free energies interaction between particle/substrate, particle/liquid, and substrate/liquid interfaces and the potential energies due to the interaction of the dissimilar electrical double layers. The values of free energies at the contacting surfaces composed of the three components (dispersion force, polar force and hydrogen bonding force) were calculated from values of contact angle and surface tension. The degree of attachment of the particles to the substrates increased with hydrogen bonding force at the interfaces (e.g., cellulose or the hydrophilic carbon black). The effect of the hydrogen bonding force component was superior to that of other components, but the presence of soap in the bath caused a substantial decrease of the hydrogen bonding components, and a significant reduction of the degree of the attachment was followed by that. Consequently, it was recognized that the soiling in the soap solution was prevented with the reduction of hydrogen bonding force due to adsorption of the soap on the surfaces of particles and substrates. The influence of hydrogen bonding force on the attachment was more effectively than that of the repulsive force due to the electrical double layers. Similarly, the presence of soap contributed to an increase in removal of particles from the substrates because the redeposition of the particles were prevented.