A costume worn by female elementary school teachers in the latter half of the Meiji Period was the one reformed from a traditional Japanese costume called a KIMONO. About 1900, the female teachers' custume was composed of an undivided HAKAMA called a MOBAKAMA like a Western pleated skirt, and a conventional KIMONO underneath. A broad sash, OBI, which was normally used to fasten the KIMONO, was not worn. And, the long-length KIMONO was replaced with a TSUTSUSODE which was a short-length reformed KIMONO with tighter sleeves like those of a Western clothes. The MOBAKAMA and the TSUTSUSODE were both made of cotton. Many of the female elementary school teachers were ordered to wear the above-mentioned costume by the ordinance of a prefecture, just as the male elementary school teachers were ordered to wear western-style uniform. The development of the female teachers' costume suggests the following : 1) In view of the fact that many prefectures adopted the above costume for female elementary school teachers, it can be inferred that educational leaders at that time must be significantly conscious of the nation-wide integration of a new educational society. 2) In my previous report, I pointed out that male elementary school teachers were ordered to wear a western-style uniform made of wool which was high-priced material so as to show dignity to schoolchildren. On the contrary, the female teachers' costume was made of cotton, a poorer quality material, with the aim of raising the low attendance of schoolgirls of destitute families; the female teachers' plain costume was believed to make the threadbare girls feel more homey and accessible to school. However, it is quite true that the poorer appearance of the female teachers was openly exposing their lower salary and social status. 3) The MOBAKAMA, which originated from men's HAKAMA, an equivalent of Western trousers for men, was found far more convenient for physical exercises. Some female teachers was dissatisfied with the extraordinary design of the TSUTSUSODE, but we have to admit that the TSUTSUSODE was easier for them to wash and take care of because of its simple design similar to a light Western blouse. Therefore, it can be concluded that the adoption of the costume for the female elementary school teachers gave significant favorable results to the development of school education in Japan.