The purpose of this study is to re-examine the purpose and role of household eco-account book by studying first the household eco-account book proposed by Morioka et al. in 1980 and then those books currently in use, in order to consider its role and usefulness in society. This study also clarifies the major characteristics of 40 samples of household eco-account books. A detail examination of nine data samples gathered from the sample account books is also conducted. The main findings and considerations are as follows : 1) Regarding its purpose and role, while Morioka et al. situate household eco-account book in the citizens' and local governments' effort to create a better environment, the current household eco-account book movement places its emphasis too much on the ability and effort of housewives themselves and furthermore lacks to treat household eco-account book as an important and positive medium to clarify the ecological problems within the existing society. 2) By using household eco-account book, the citizens become more aware of environmental issues and tend to live more ecologically, but at the same time their fill-outs demonstrate that there are obstacles for more positive behavioral change such as physical housing conditions, social systems, and business rationale. 3) This study asserts, therefore, that there is a strong need to situate the household eco-account book within the social system, and the citizens, businesses, and governments should cooperate with each other in order to change society into more ecologically sound one.
The purpose of this report is to investigate the factors considered to have children spend more time playing outside rather than inside their houses. The questionnaire prepared for the 4th and 6th graders was sent in 1993 to a primary school in Kagoshima City as well as to three schools in northeastern part of Kagoshima Prefecture, and 494 answers were obtained. The questionnaire covered the children's play habits, their life after school, and their families' relationship with neighbors. The results may be summarized as follows : 1) Many children in rural areas play outside and their families have more interactions (in various ways) with their neighbors than their counterparts in urban area. 2) By the analysis made by the quantification theory type II, the factors attributed to have children play outside were varied among those in urban and rural areas. The primary factor for less frequent outside playing among the urban children, however, is due to the fact that they play at their friends' or neighbors' house. So far as the behavior of the children in rural area is concerned, the results of the quantification theory type II are not reliable. However, the highest scoring factor to keep children inside their home is their low degree of desire to play. The writer was unable to determine which factors dominate in having children in rural areas play outside.
We proposed a 3-dimensional model based on the idea that basic bodice patterns are based on the development of a 3-dimensional shell constructed from a developable surface with an unexpandable paper-like sheet. It was confirmed that the developiment of the 3-dimensional model conforms to basic bodice patterns. Then a classification of design methods of 18 basic bodice patterns was examnined. The results are summarized as follows : 1) It was found that 5 out of 18 basic bodice patterns are the same in width for the front and back body parts and the other basic bodice patterns have wider back body parts than front body parts. 2) It was found that 12 basic bodice patterns for back body parts and 4 front body parts conform to the plane-development of the 3-dimensional model. Three of them conform to the plane-development of the 3-dimensional model for front and back body parts. 3) It was found that 2 basic bodice patterns satisfied all our conditions for a 3-dimensional model. 4) It was presumed that the 3-dimenesional shell of the basic bodice pattern, having wider back body parts than front body parts, can be explained by extending this model.
In this study, 200 basic patterns in 176 books and magazines were used to survey the historical changes in drawings of the upper trunk of women. These books and magazines were extracted from among 375 sewing publications, textbooks, teacher's manuals, three kinds of women's monthly magazines, and a stylebook, which were published from the beginning of the Meiji era to 1945. The results are as follows : At first, basic patterns were drawn based on mainly breast size to make the upper trunk of girls' dresses at the end of the Meiji era. Thereafter, patterns which could be used for both children and women were created. Then patterns specially designed for women were developed. After 1935, basic patterns were adopted in school curriculums at elementary schools and by women's magazines, and the use of basic patterns for dress making became standard practice among ordinary people. Therefore, basic patterns contributed to the spread of Western dress in Japan. Drawings for women were partly influenced by men's pattern making and Kimono cutting methods. In addition, drawings designed to cover the complicated curves of shoulders and breast swells began to emerge in this period.