The time-course characteristics of the amount of water absorption in vacuum-dried agar gels containing dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride (DMDOAC), poly (vinyl acetate) emulsion (PVAc-E) and their mixtures was measured in order to investigate the water absorbency of food model systems. Scanning electron microscopy showed the network of the gel containing DMDOAC more indistinctly than that of the gel of agar alone. The clear network of the gel mixed with PVAc-E could be observed by the adsorption of PVAc in which was coherent in several pieces. The gel containing the mixture of DMDOAC and PVAc-E showed a network with adsorbed PVAc which was coherent in several pieces and seemed to be covered by DMDOAC. The water absorption process for each gel involved in common two steps, the first absorbing water at a high rate for about 120 min, reaching an inflection point at that time, and then absorbing water at a low rate, finally almost reaching saturation, without being influenced by the presence or concentration of the additives. The initial rate and saturation weight of water absorption for the gel of agar alone were 0.85 g/g·min and 21.8 g/g, respectively. The initial rate and saturation weight of water absorption for the gel including DMDOAC and the gel including the mixture of DMDOAC and PVAc-E showed exponential and logarithmic decreases with increasing concentration. The initial rate and saturation weight of water absorption for the gel including PVAc-E showed the maximum values at 0.1 wt% and minimum values at 1.0 wt%, the characteristic changing from the exponential decrease.
Ongoing research concerning the lifestyle and food eating behavior of children/students has been conducted in northern Thailand since 1997. Three regions, urban Chiang Mai, rural Samoeng, and the mountain village of Bokao, linked together by a life route, have been chosen as survey areas in the present study. A questionnaire survey, hearing, observation, etc. were used to collect data which were analyzed by such statistical methods as correspondence and cross analyses. The regional difference and school grade difference in formal daily meals within the respective regions were examined. Among the urban children/students, a high ratio of missing morning meals, eating midnight snacks, and snack-eating as a substitute for formal meals were observed. Furthermore, morning meals were made the lightest among the three formal meals. Eating alone by children, dining out, and eating bread were also recognized. In the rural area, the traditional manners and customs are still strong, not only in eating behaviors (e.g. eating glutinous rice) but also in other conscious actions. In the mountain village, the highest proportion of meals is eaten among those three areas, and home-cooked dishes are eaten as a family meal. However, the mealtime is the shortest, and it seems that their meals are very frugal. Children/students who miss morning meals often have a high level of irritability. Of those who eat night snacks, many also miss morning meals. Eating bread has recently become more widespread in Thai eating behavior and become very popular in the city. Children/students recognize it a kind of cake. Children/students who usually eat meals alone tend to eat bread, so eating bread might promote 'eating meals alone' in the future.
This paper aims to examine teaching contents in the province of housing study in home economics education of junior high school. In order to find out where the interest of teachers and students on the province of housing study lies, we researched with the questionnaire that consists of 50 items for dwelling life. The results of the survey are as follows : School lesson is ordinarily based on course of study. In addition, teachers think the need of teaching contents with meeting the needs of the times. Meanwhile, students have little interests in housing study. It should be pointed out, however, that teachers and students alike show more interests in “dwelling sanitation and security, ” “environmental problem, ” “dwelling environment for the aged and the disabled persons” and “town planning.” Students have more interests in “family and privacy” and “interior design, ” too, which is in stark contrasts with the opinions expressed by teachers who base on course of study. The results suggest that there is a need to give second thought about the teaching contents while restructuring the course of study.