Both the measures schemed by the committee to study part-time working and the "freeter" measures planned by the same committee target at the same type of employment form, i.e., part-time job. The direction of the measures of the two, however, is not the same. This study aims at clarifying the reason how the different directions were established, and whether or not the directional difference is justifiable. First, the transformation of the directionality and of the evaluation of the measures for the part-time working were clarified by studying the reports submitted by the committee. Next, the direction of the "freeter" measures were compared with the above-mentioned directionality and evaluation. The results of this study may be summed up as follows.: 1. The difference in the two types of measures can be accounted for by the double criterion based on gender that exists in the measures for the part-time working. In other words, there is a structural factor that regards those young marrieds both working part-time as respectively a personal case. The different estimation brought about the difference of measures. 2. There is no remarkable difference between the "freeters" and the married females working part-time as to the state of labor as well as their view of work. Therefore, it may be concluded that there is no rationality in planning different types of measures.
The deterioration in aroma of miso soup by heating was evaluated by analyzing the change in headspace volatiles by the solid-phase microextraction method. The number of flavor components detected by gas chromatography-olfactometry increased when the miso suspension was heated to 80°C, more than 3 times the number at room temperature. However, about 40% of these volatiles could not be detected after heating at 80°C for 3 min. 3-Methyl-1-butanol, one of the main flavor components of miso soup, was greatly decreased at the initial stage of heating. Methional contributed to the aroma degradation, being newly formed and increased by heating at 80°C. 4-Hydroxy-2(or 5)-ethy1-5(or 2)-methy1-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), which is an important flavor component of miso soup, was decomposed by heating at 80°C, with 2,3-hexanedione and 3,4-hexanedione being identified as the HEMF degradation products.
The effect of the proportion of blue on a plate, between white and blue, on the appetite was investigated. Three types of plate were used: Japanese, Western, and Chinese style plates that were blue and white, or only blue. Depending on the ratio of blue to white, the plates were classified into four groups: A (10-20%), B (25-35%), C (55-65%), and D (100%). Two meals of Japanese, Western, and Chinese food, involving a total of six dishes, were served on each type of plate, and photographed. An evaluation panel looked at the pictures of the A, B, C, and D plates simultaneously and evaluated their effect on appetite by scoring on a questionnaire. The evaluated mean value for the A plates was significantly higher than that for C and D, suggesting that the plates with a blue-to-white ratio of 10-20% increased the appetite. The evaluated mean appetite value for D was significantly low with all the meals, suggesting that all-blue plates reduced the appetite. The correlation coefficient between the ratio of blue to white and mean appetite was -0.79, indicative of a negative correlation between these variables. The effect of the saturation of blue was also examined. Plate E with a blue-to-white ratio of 100% at a lower saturation than D was tested, and a similar questionnaire survey was conducted. The evaluated mean appetite for E was lower than that for D in all cases except with one Western meal. The results suggest that a blue plate with low saturation reduced the appetite more than a blue plate with high saturation.
An analysis was conducted of 291 school lunch menus for about 2,250 pre-school children of 3 to 5 years old to identify the use and cooking method for vegetables. Japanese dishes appeared in 66% of the menus. Many of these were soups, dressed dishes, and simmered dishes, with a few using oil. Vegetables made up about 30% of the menu content, most of which covered 61 items. Vegetables were used in 90% of all the dishes with 70 g of each being served. The most common combination in the menus was vegetables and fish or shellfish which made up 45% of the total. These results suggest that the school lunches offering vegetables were based on Japanese dishes using various foods and cooking methods and that pre-school children were acquiring the experience of eating sufficient vegetables.
We examined the influence of clothing weight on cervico-omo-brachial fatigue by using sensory evaluation, clothing pressure and EMG. The subjects were 10 university students (19-22 years of age) and 9 elderly women (68-79 years of age), for a total of 19. (1) As clothing weight increased, the motion adaptability of young women decreased. However, this tendency was not seen in the elderly women. (2) When a jacket was worn, the highest clothing pressure was found to be in the shoulder for the young women and in the neck for the elderly women. (3) The shoulder angle was significantly smaller when the highest clothing pressure was in the shoulder compared to when it was in the side of the neck (p<0.001). (4) As clothing weight increased, the muscle burden was significantly larger for the elderly women than it was for the young women (p<0.05).
This interactive novel Gabriel is an early work by the transvestite George Sand and was written in April 1839. The story tells the tragic life of the heroine who by a ruse of her grandfather has been brought up as a man. She falls in love with her cousin, and later has an unhappy marriage, ending with her murder. There are not a few common points between the heroine and Sand. Gabriel has begun to be recognized recently as one of the works that best represents the author's thoughts on womanhood, although it had not received much attention in the past. This thesis examines the symbolism represented by the heroine's transvestism as well as Sand's thoughts reflected through descriptions of the heroine's clothes. The author shows how the heroine's transvestism serves as a device to denounce the subordination of women in marriage and the family system.
A questionnaire concerning the putting on and taking off of clothes, socks and shoes of children with intellectual disabilities was given to their parents or guardians, mainly their mothers. The authors aimed to find ways of providing effective support through continual observation and case studies. The results of this study are as follows: (1) With regards to support, the surveyed children were classified into 5 groups according to the time they entered the school and the type of disability they had; (2) The parents or guardians have been able to teach their children to correctly identify the front or back of shirts, the top or bottom of socks and the difference between a left shoe and a right shoe; (3) Some visual effects were recognized in the case studies, namely the colored buttons on the bottom of a shirt, the colored heel or toe of socks and the colored elastic strings attached on the same side of shoes and the wrist; (4) The authors considered the necessity of developing effective support programs to help children with intellectual disabilities put on and take off clothes through joint studies and exchanges between specialists, teachers in charge of special classes for children with intellectual disabilities and clothing science scholars.