This study is aimed to clarify the effect of energy and non-energy beverage intake on food intake and the association between energy compensation and habitual total energy expenditure. A randomized crossover study (sweetener condition (S condition) ; 225 kcal or artificial sweetener condition (AS condition) ; 0 kcal) was conducted. The subjects were 16 healthy women within 2 weeks after menstruation. Glucose level and subjective appetite were evaluated before beverage intake and 0, 20, 40, 60, 120 and 150 minutes after beverage intake. Ad libitum breakfast was served 60 minutes after beverage intake. One hundred fifty minutes after beverage intake, the subjects lived freely and their food intake was evaluated each day. The subjects wore an accelerometer for a week except for the experimental day. Habitual daily physical activity was evaluated. Compared to the S condition, the AS condition had significantly lower glucose levels before breakfast (p＜0.010), but significantly higher 120 minutes after beverage intake (after breakfast) (p＝0.004). Subjective appetite in the S condition was significantly higher than in the AS condition 60 minutes after beverage intake (p＝0.034). However, energy intake from breakfast and beverage and total energy intake per day including beverage in the S condition were significantly higher than in the AS condition (p＜0.010). Habitual daily physical activity was not correlated with energy compensation (p＞0.05). In this study, it was suggested that the presence or absence of beverage intake affects glucose level and subjective appetite, but does not affect energy compensation.
We investigated the history of Mucuna beans described in the old documents: “Shinkan tashikihen,” “Honchoshokkan,” “Yamato honzou,” “Honzou koumoku Keimoou kanno niju,” and “Wakan sansaizue” that were published in the Edo period. Focusing on the cooking method “removal of black juice” explained in “Wakan sansaizue,” various browning reactions during the cooking of Mucuna beans were examined. A fast reaction was observed on the cut surface of immature Mucuna beans due to the simultaneous presence of polyphenol, polyphenol oxidase and oxygen. In the case of matured Mucuna beans soaked in warm water, the browning was milder than when exposed to air; this is presumed to be due to the influence of the amount of oxygen dissolved in water, the soaking temperature, the substance to be eluted, and the optimum temperature of the enzyme contained in the Mucuna beans. It was suggested that the amount of L-DOPA decreased when the color of soaking water and/or the soaked beans became darker. However, these browning reactions did not require the whole amount of L-DOPA contained in the Mucuna beans; they were darkened by a relatively small amount of L-DOPA.
This research aimed to understand the actual conditions of residential lighting in the Kansai region. In this report, the horizontal illuminance and the power consumption for an activity in the living room were examined. Analysis with a focus on the number of lighting patterns was performed. It was found that 52.7％ of residents have one lighting pattern, and the lighting does not change according to the activity. There is little difference in the average horizontal illuminance of each activity. For the most part, “Studying and long reading”, “writing” and “short reading” have the same lighting pattern. Residents who use only one lighting pattern tend to have the lowest power consumption. Therefore, it may be concluded that there is no relationship between energy saving and changing the lighting pattern according to the activity.
Sweet potato leaves and leafstalks were often harvested and eaten in summertime. However, since the tuberous root part is harvested in October and November, it is inefficient to harvest only the stems and leaves of sweet potatoes in summertime. We examined the differences in leafstalk length, leafstalk width, color, polyphenol content, and radical scavenging activity in the leaves and leafstalks of sweet potatoes that were harvested in August and November using three cultivars: ‘Annou-kogane’, ‘Annou-beni’, and ‘Beniharuka’. We also examined the physical properties of leafstalks exposed to heat. The length of leafstalks harvested in November was longer than those harvested in August. There was no significant difference in color tone or physical properties of leaves and leafstalks between the August and November harvests. Furthermore, the leaves and leafstalks of sweet potatoes had high levels of polyphenol content and antioxidant activity regardless of harvest time. When leafstalks were heated, they softened with all heat methods. These results indicate that the quality of sweet potato leaves and leafstalks, including the tuberous root part, harvested in November are equal or superior to those harvested in August.
The purpose of this study is to help revitalize hot-spring areas through experiences in Japanese culture. For this purpose, this paper examined 250 young, middle-aged, and elderly men regarding their criteria in selecting hot spring hotels (21 items) and regarding their onsen-yukata-dressing behavior (35 items) and yukata preference (12 items). Onsen yukata refers to the casual cotton kimono worn at onsen (hot spring resorts).
Factor analysis on the “selection criteria of hot-spring hotels” extracted four factors: “facilities (buildings and name recognition),” “services and atmosphere,” “open-air baths and landscapes,” and “sightseeing and transportation.” The items rated high were “meals,” “atmosphere of the hotel,” “landscapes,” and “hotel charges” in this order, according to their average rating values. The order was the same among all age groups.
Factor analysis on the onsen-yukata-dressing behavior extracted four factors: “enhanced mood,” “foreigners and experiences in Japanese culture,” “impression evaluations,” and “relaxation.” Young subjects rated six items of the “foreigners and experiences in Japanese culture” factor high. Middle-aged and elderly subjects rated three items of the “relaxation” factor high. Young people say that yukata make the wearer look mature, showing significant differences (p＜0.001) as compared with middle-aged/elderly people. Men as a whole liked quiet colors for yukata.
By using two-dimensional axes of “modern versus classic” and “unicolored small patterns versus multicolored large patterns,” we visualized the positions of twelve types of onsen yukata for men. Men as a whole were found to like modern, multicolored onsen yukata with large patterns.