The purpose of this study is to clarify the changes in household formation and generational succession between 1982 and 2014 in rural stem family system households. This paper presents the results of a panel data analysis of 239 subjects classified as “MC-1”, “MC-2”, or “MC-3”, by marriage cohort. The main findings of the study are as follows. First, the rates of generational succession of household members in 2014 were 70.1％ for MC-1, 37.9％ for MC-2, and 26.0％ for MC-3. Second, direct continuity was maintained in the household formation of MC-1, whereas it appears that in MC-2 and MC-3 it was difficult to maintain direct continuity. Third, the factors that significantly promoted generational succession of members were found to be “belonging to MC-1” (1982, 1993, and 2014) and “the expectation of inheriting farmland by the eldest son” (2005 and 2014). Finally, study results showed that, as generational succession becomes difficult because of socioeconomic changes in the community, where the norms of the stem family system are maintained, the number of households with unmarried children living with their parents continues to increase, thereby stagnating household formation.
The resistance of vegetable gels to various heat treatments, freezing treatment and freeze-drying treatment were examined in order to evaluate the usefulness of vegetable gels as a new food material. As a result of the experiments undertaken, we found that carrot gel prepared by gelling carrot puree with gellan gum not only has a resistance to boiling, steaming, frying, baking, and microwave heating, but it also maintains those heat resistances in a frozen state.
Furthermore, it was revealed that the color and shape of carrot gel can be retained even when freeze-dried. We also prepared various other vegetable gels (Japanese radish, burdock, komatsuna (Japanese mustard spinach), potato, pumpkin, and lotus root), and confirmed that they had heat resistance in 1％ NaCl solution regardless of whether they were frozen or thawed.
As a result of the above experiments, vegetable gel is an epoch-making food that can be used as an ingredient for everyday cooking and as an emergency food and nursing food from the standpoint of cookability and storability.
In this study, the protein content in flours and the nitrogen topdressing methods employed in wheat cultivation were evaluated, with the aim of improving the bread-making quality of hard wheat Yumekaori. The wheat was cultivated by two methods of nitrogen topdressing: (1) inter-row spraying of ammonium sulfate, and (2) a combination of inter-row spraying of ammonium sulfate and foliar spraying of urea. The bread-making quality of Yumekaori cultivated using the combination method was found to be superior to that cultivated using the inter-row spraying method. The values of “firmness” and “adhesiveness” of the bread made from Yumekaori cultivated using the combination method were significantly lower than those cultivated using the inter-row spraying method. In addition, the ratio of glutenin to gliadin was higher in the wheat cultivated by the combination method than that with the inter-spraying method. These results suggest that bread-making quality is improved by increasing the ratio of gluten and gliadin in Yumekaori cultivated by the combination method.
In this study, we investigated the effects on baking quality caused by the properties of coarse cereal flour and dough with polysaccharide thickeners added, when bread is made with coarse cereal flour as the main ingredient. Using white sorghum flour as the coarse cereal flour, with three types of polysaccharide thickeners, namely MCE-4000, SFE-4000, and SE-50, we investigated the gelatinization characteristics and dynamic viscoelasticity of the dough. In terms of the gelatinization characteristics, we observed a strong correlation between the peak viscosity, minimum viscosity, and specific volume of the bread. From the results of regression analysis, we were able to explain the relationship with the final viscosity by means of a quadratic equation (R2＝0.94). The results of the gelatinization characteristics suggested that peak elasticity was high, the subsequent decrease in elasticity was low, and the swelling of the bread was better when the final viscosity was higher. In terms of the temperature dependence of the dynamic viscoelasticity, there was a correlation between the initial storage modulus (G′0), specific volume, and hardness of the bread, which suggested that the higher the G′0 value, the larger the specific volume and the softer the bread. A future challenge will be to investigate the optimal G′0 range.