The contents of carotene and vitamin C in the fresh seaweed samples of 58 species (7 green seaweeds, 23 red seaweeds and 28 brown seaweeds), which were collected at the sea shore of Katsurashima, Shimane Prefecture or Kumihama, Kyoto Prefecture, were determined. The results are as follows : (1) It was found that the content of carotene in 100 g of the fresh seaweed samples of 51 species was above 600 pg and that of vitamin C was above 20 mg in 100 g of the samples of 39 species. (2) The relationships between the carotene and the vitamin C contents in seaweed samples varied with the species of seaweeds. For example, positive correlations were observed in green and red seaweeds, but not in brown ones.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the physical properties of foodstuffs that are equivalent to the firmness we feel during the mastication. For examination of the physical properties, we took various clearance setting in measurement of foods by the texturometer. The main results from this examination are as follows : 1) It is suggested from the sensory test that we need to decide a clearance for each food iii order to make comparison among different kinds of food. 2) We determined a clearance in the measurement of the crushed foods by examining the appearance of the second peak in the first chew of the profile. 3) In the case of non-crushed foods, we determined a clearance in the measurement by examining changing point in the cohesiveness. 4) In the case of adhesive foods, the acute angle shape of negative peak beneath the baseline in the adhesiveness served as the criterion of clearance.
The relationship between the firming up of Japanese radish roots by preheating at 60 t or drying them at room temperature and pectic change was investigated. The results obtained were as follows : 1) The pectins of Japanese radish roots' tissues were extracted successively with diluted HCl, acetate buffer, and sodium hexametaphosphate solutions. The amount of HCl-soluble pectin (fraction A, the high-methoxyl pectin) decreased markedly, while that of acetate buffer-soluble pectin (fraction B, the low methoxyl pectin) increased significantly by preheating. A similar tendency was observed with the dried tissues. The degree of esterification and specific viscosity of both fraction pectins decreased by drying and preheating. 2) The activity of pectin methylesterase (PME) continued to be considerably active even after preheating or drying. There was also exo-polygalacturonase (PG) present in Japanese radish roots. The decrease of esterification degree was caused by PME, and that of specific viscosity was caused by PG. 3) The amount of pectins released into the cooking solutions was as follows : raw tissue >dried>preheated, respectively. The breakdown of pectins within the roots'raw tissues by β-elimination proceeded more rapidly than the others. A large amount of free methanol was released into the cooking solution during preheating. The main factors which caused the firming of tissues within the Japanese radish roots through preheating or drying were : the demethoxylation of pectin, catalyzed by PME, inhibited the degradation of pectin caused by the β-elimination reaction during cooking, and as a result of this demethoxylation free carboxyl groups increased, which formed a rigid pectin gel with Ca2+and Mg2+.
In the previous paper, it was reported that the rice of favorable quality could be cooked by keeping the rice temperature above 98 t for at least 20 min. In this paper, the heating speed and the boiling time were investigated. In addition to the 10 min heating used previously, a 5 min heating (rapid heating) was followed by boiling times of 15, 20, or 25 min, and a 18 min heating (slow heating) was followed by boiling times of 10, 15, or 20 min. The samples prepared were also tested physically and chemically. The heating speed showed considerable effect on quality of the cooked rice. It was found that the rice temperature has to be kept above 98 t for more than 20 min in either rapid or slow heating to obtain the cooked rice with favorable quality.
In this study, in the first place, the validity of the initial maximum value of heat flux, qmax, as an objective measure of warm/cool feeling when human skin touches on fabrics is confirmed by sensory test. Nextly, relations between qmax and basic mechanical properties for many kinds of fabrics of six uses are examined. As a result, fairly high correlations between qmax and thickness, weight, compressive properties are obtained. Experiments to obtain qmax are carried out for various fabrics which differ in type of fiber, yarn structure and fabric structure under standard condition and wet condition. From the results of fabrics which have almost the same fabric construction and vary in fiber material, it is found that the behaviours of moisture regain vs. qmax are divided into three groups. It is remarkable that qmax of linen is higher and that of wool is lower. The warm feeling of wool and the cool feeling of linen can be explained from these results. However, the dependence of the behaviour of qmax of wet fabrics on fabric and yarn structures is not so strong as in the case of thermal conductivity reported in the previous paper.
In a previous work, it was recognized that the formation of liquid crystalline phases played an important role in a fatty soil detergent action. In the present work the temperatures, at which liquid crystalline phase appears in the ternary system, surfactant-water-fatty soil, have been determined at various concentrations of the surfactant using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The structures of liquid crystal have been determined by the observation with a polarizing microscope. Samples used are sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a surfactant and the mixture of palmitic and stearic acids, 4 : 1, as a model soil. The results showed that two kinds of liquid crystals, a middle phase and a neat phase, were formed depending on the concentrations of SDS and temperature. The SDS concentration dependences of TM and TN, the temperatures at which the middle phase and neat phase were formed respectively, were investigated together with the conversion ratio of the model soil from a solid state into a liquid crystallin state. It was proved consequently, that for fatty soil removal the formation of the neat phase was preferable but not that of the middle phase.
Shrinkage of cloth caused by needle penetration in the lock stitch machine sewing had not been measured and thus the characteristics of such shrinkage had not been presented. An investigation of the shrinkage was carried out on several types of cloth under various sewing conditions. The following results were obtained. 1) When the stitch density is constant, the shrinkage ratio y (%) is related to static needle thread tension x (g), by the expression, y=ax2d+c, where a and c are constants. 2) The 0 g shrinkage ratio, i.e., the shrinkage ratio at the needle thread tension Olgiis useful for the estimation of the shrinkage by needle and sewing thread penetration. 3) At a low stitch density, there is a positive relationship between the stitch density and the 0 g shrinkage ratio. 4) The material and the diameter of sewing thread are factors determining the extent : of the shrinkage. 5) The shrinkage could be predicted by means of stitching cloth without thread.
An examination was made of subjective images generated by striped patterns in Wafuku (Japanese clothing), and a comparison was made with images generated by patterns of similar color in Western clothing. The results showed that red generated a “gaudy” and “clear” image, black was “sober” and “clear, ” green was “unrefined” and “unclear, ” and blue was “refined” and “unclear.” A comparative analysis showed that, whereas thickness of stripe was the most important factor in determining image in Western clothing, color was the most important factor in image generation in Wafuku.
The purpose of this study is to grasp how greatly children change in their way of possession, use and directional intention of their room as they grow older, and to make clear how change in sex, and change in directional intention of mothers and children. In this paper, the children (fifth-grade pupils, sixth-grade pupils, eighth-grade pupils and eleventh-grade pupils) and their mothers have been inquired. The following results were obtained. 1) Most children who are fifth-grade and sixth-grade have the children's room and most eleventh-grade have their own room. 2) Children use their own room as anybody can come and go there. And children take care of their own children's room for themselves and control almost their private life in their own children's room as they grow older. 3) It has been found that the rate of possession of children's room is not different by sex, but how to use them is not the same by sex. 4) It has been found that children's view of the functions of children's room is different from mothers' one, and some problems exist on mothers' side.