Relationships between response styles, stressors, and depressive symptoms were investigated in a cross section of adolescents from 4th to 9th grades. A model including stress-diathesis and stress-generation was developed to examine whether response styles moderated the effects of stressors on depressive symptoms, and whether response styles were linked to an increased likelihood of stressors. Results indicated that rumination and distraction functioned as moderators in adolescents that are high ruminators, or in adolescents that are low distractors exhibiting a stronger association between stressors and depression. Furthermore, all response styles were associated with the stressor level, such that rumination and distraction were related to increased levels of stressors, whereas problem-solving was related to decreased levels of stressors. It is suggested that a universal depression prevention programs for adolescents should focus on attenuating rumination and enhancing problem-solving skills.
Effects of positive and/or negative events experienced in junior high school on mental health and school maladaptation of students were investigated. Junior high school students (N=218) from first to third grade completed scales assessing school stressors, daily uplifts in school, stress responses, unwillingness to attend school, and self-efficacy for school life. Results of multiple regression analyses indicated that school stressors increased stress responses and unwillingness to attend school, or decreased self-efficacy for school life, whereas school uplifts decreased stress responses and unwillingness to attend school, or increased self-efficacy. Results of cluster analysis suggested that event patterns experienced by students could be classified into three types: (1) Average stressors and low uplifts; (2) high stressors and average uplifts; and (3) low stressors and high uplifts. Moreover, an analysis of variance indicated that students in the third cluster, compared to students in first two clusters had higher self-efficacy for school life, lower stress responses, and less unwillingness to attend school.
A hypothetical model of the relationship between social skills, alexithymia, adjustment, and burnout in Japanese university athletes (N=254; 100 men and 154 women; mean age=19.85, SD=1.06) was developed and the effect of individual burnout levels was examined. Participants completed questionnaires including the Sports Social Skills Scale, Sports Alexithymia Scale, Adjustment Scale for College Athletes, and Burnout Scale for University Athletes. Results of path analysis indicated satisfactory fit indices of the hypothetical model. Moreover, social skills of athletes were indirectly associated with burnout through alexithymia and adjustment. Furthermore, multi-group structural equation analyses indicated that differences in burnout were predicted by the hypothetical model. These results suggest that social skills interventions for athletes might help prevent burnout by reducing individual problems and improving interpersonal relationships. Also, affective mechanisms of social skills in burnout suggested differences based on the personal burnout level. It is suggested that further clinical practice with athletes experiencing burnout is required to validate the results of this study, as well as to select optimal intervention techniques for each athlete.
Recently, Inner Strength (IS) has been increasingly focused as a personal resource that helps people overcome adversities and promote well-being. The purpose of this study was to develop a Japanese version of the IS Scale (ISS-J) based on the ISS of Lundman et al. (2011), which consists of four factors: Firmness, Creativity, Connectedness, and Flexibility. Moreover, reliability, construct validity, and criterion related validity of the Japanese scale was investigated. Japanese college students (N=395) participated in the study. Results of exploratory factor analysis indicated that ISS-J comprised three factors with the exception of Flexibility in ISS: Creativity, Firmness, and Connectedness. Cronbach's alpha values indicated adequate internal consistency of the ISS-J (α=.79–.88). Confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation modeling demonstrated sufficiently high validity of the three-oblique-factor model of the ISS-J. Additionally, there were significant and positive correlations between ISS-J and the Sense of Coherence and Self-Esteem Scale scores respectively (r=.24–.50, p<.001). These findings indicate that ISS-J has adequate reliability and validity. It is suggested that further studies are needed to examine the reliability and validity of the scale with other age groups.