This study was designed to investigate relationships between cognitive appraisal of food preparation by mothers with child-rearing and family relationships. Mothers of kindergarten-aged children in the Tokyo metropolitan area (N=857) responded to a survey comprising five scales: the Cognitive Appraisal Scale of Preparing Food, the Parenting Strain Index, the Resilience Scale in Parenting, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale, and a scale of support from the husband. Results of a multiple regression analysis indicated that the parenting stress in mothers was positively associated with the burden of food preparation and interest in food safety. Parenting resilience was also negatively associated with the burden of food preparation and positively associated with enjoyment of food preparation. Additionally, family functioning was positively associated with mothers' enjoyment in food preparation. It is concluded that improving the living environment of the mother including child-rearing and family relationships provided children with good eating habits. We hope that these results will lead to improvments in “Shoku-Iku” of children.
The contribution of habit as a reason for smoking under stressful conditions was investigated. In Study 1, the reasons for smoking including “Reduction of negative affect,” “Elevation and stimulation,” “Habitual use,” “Pleasurable relaxation,” and “Sensory motor manipulation” that influenced nicotine dependence were investigated. Results of a multiple regression analysis of data from 117 smokers suggested that the Habitual use factor had a significant influence on nicotine dependence. In Study 2, the influenced of the “Habitual use” factor on the desires to smoke under stressful conditions was investigated. Data of frequent habitual smokers (n=11) and less frequent habitual smokers (n=11) indicated that Habitual use did not influence the desire to smoke, or induce smoking for coping with stress, whereas the desire to smoke increased in stressful compared to neutral conditions regardless of the Habitual use scores. These results suggest that high habitual smokers smoke more in responses to stress and other reason than because of habit.
Effects of brooding, a negative component of cognitive information processing during rumination, and possible effects of depressive symptoms on verbal working memory capacity were investigated. Healthy undergraduate and graduate students (N=37) participated in a test for assessing reading span and recall, and also completed the Japanese version of the Ruminative Responses Scale (RRS), the Japanese version of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Stanford Sleepiness Scale. Results of t-tests conducted on recall and reading span scores with high and low brooding as independent variables indicated no significant differences. Moreover, an analysis of variance on recall and reading span scores, with high and low brooding and high and low depressive symptoms as independent variables also indicated no significant differences. These results suggest that characteristics of verbal working memory capacity are not impaired by brooding and rather that brooding might cause impairments of visuospatial working memory capacity.
Relationships between somatic complaints and alexithymic tendencies were investigated in junior-high-school students (N=1,206; 626 boys and 580 girls) that completed the Somatic Complaint List (SCL) and the Alexithymia Scale for Adolescents (ASA). Results indicated that girls had significantly higher total SCL scores than boys (d=.18), and third-year students had significantly higher total SCL scores than first-year students (d=.18). Moreover, a hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that “difficulty identifying feelings” (DIF) subscale of the ASA contributed to higher SCL scores (boys: β=.33, p<.01; girls: β=.37, p <.01), and furthermore, “difficulty describing feelings” (DDF) subscale played a role in increasing somatic complaints in boys (β= .10, p<.05). Also, the DIF×DDF interaction was associated with the total SCL score in girls. These results suggest that alexithymic tendencies, especially DIF and secondarily DDF, influence somatic complaints of junior-high-school students.
Correlations between factors characteristic of competitive sports (athletic events and competitive levels) and dichotomous thinking were investigated. A questionnaire survey was conducted with university students in university athletic clubs (N=200, 67 men and 133 women, mean age=19.5, SD=1.2). The results indicated the following. (1) Dichotomous Thinking Inventory (DTI, Oshio, 2009) is appropriate for use with athletes. (2) Athletes in general use more dichotomous thinking, compared to average Japanese university students. (3) No significant differences in DTI scores were observed between individual and group events, although the possibility of a hierarchical structure consisting of micro (individual athletes)–macro (athletic group: athletic event) was suggested. (4) DTI score of male athletes tended to be higher in the high-competitive, compared to the low-competitive group. These results indicate that dichotomous thinking, which could be maladaptive, might have adaptive functions in sports.
Depression has become a major concern in recent years. Although a number of studies have examined various factors affecting depressive symptoms, few studies have been conducted with young adults. It is known that people can learn from failures. However, this does not mean that people necessarily feel positive emotions when they perform unsuccessfully in sports. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between learning orientation about failure and depressive symptoms, which were examined by using a questionnaire. Male university athletes in Hokkaido district (N=380) participated in the study. Learning orientation about failure that was categorized into four factors were considered as the independent variables, whereas the personality, university year, and sporting event were considered confounding variables, and depressive symptoms were considered the dependent variable. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between these variables. Results indicated that no, or little learning orientation about failure increased the incidence of depressive symptoms compared to high learning orientation about failure (odds ratio: 3.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.2–10.5, odds ratio: 2.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.02–4.9). These results suggest that low learning orientation about failure significantly affected depressive symptoms in university athletes, after controlling for confounding variables.