Appearance Schemas Inventory-Revised (ASI-R) consists of two factors, Self-Evaluative Salience (SES) and Motivational Salience (MS). The influence of these two ASI-R factors on mental health is unclear. The present study explored how these factors that are related to appearance schema influenced stress responses and psychological well-being. A cross-sectional study was conducted with female participants (N=517; mean age=48.30 years, SD=12.81). They completed questionnaires including scales assessing appearance schemas, stress responses, and psychological well-being. Data on participants’ height and weight were also recorded. We performed covariance structure analysis to verify our model. It was hypothesized that appearance schemas would influence stress responses and psychological well-being. The results indicated that SES, which assesses beliefs about how people’s appearance influences their self-worth and self-concept, increases stress responses and decreases psychological well-being. In contrast, MS, which assesses the efforts to be, or feel attractive, reduces stress responses and increases psychological well-being. These results suggest that the two factors of ASI-R inversely influence mental health.
It is known that Japanese teachers suffer from far more psychological stress in their workplaces than company workers. Moreover, the number of teachers that are away from work on medical leave has become a serious problem in Japan. This study examined how teachers should spend their leisure time to facilitate resilience. Japanese teachers (N=495) of elementary, junior high, high schools, and special schools participated in this survey. Results indicated that hobby activities facilitated resilience. Moreover, especially for men, resilience increased when doing output activities, such as participating in sports or playing musical instruments than when doing input activities, such as watching games or listening to music. There were no differences between junior high and high school teachers in the relationship between hobby activities and resilience, even though instructing junior high school students is most difficult.
The influence of self-monitoring in stress management education on increasing coping repertoires was investigated. We classified junior high school students (N=520) into 3 groups: a self-monitoring group, relaxation group, and a control group. Four sessions were conducted in which participants were requested to complete questionnaires on coping repertoires, stress responses, and self-efficacy at pre- and post-intervention, and at 1-month follow-up. The results showed an increase in the coping repertoire and a decrease in stress responses in the self-monitoring group. However, the post-intervention coping repertoire had decreased at 1-month follow-up. It is concluded that the effects of stress management education were not sufficiently maintained. Future directions of this research are discussed.
The present study aimed to explore factors that contribute to the use of psychosocial support services among cancer outpatients in Japan and to understand the utilization process. Content analysis was conducted on interview data collected from 41 participants. We extracted 11 higher order categories and 33 sub-categories of triggers and elements that constituted the process of utilization, and 12 higher categories and 38 sub-categories that constituted barriers to utilization. Additionally, two patterns of utilization; utilization with and without intervention from others were identified. Trends of the higher categories were similar to the results of previous studies, and more detailed sub-categories were identified in the present study. This research indicated the need to develop approaches for evoking outpatients’ perceptions about their problems, improving the content and usage of support services, and changing patients’ attitudes toward support use to promote help-seeking behaviors.
An intervention program was conducted to increase social activities and participation in social-life by stroke survivors. Changes in social-life activities and participating situations, as well as changes in QOL were observed. The study was conducted in two stages (1) with users of a daycare rehabilitation facility and (2) with patients discharged from a rehabilitation hospital, who were expected to participate in these intervention programs in the future. The trial of the program was conducted with people in charge of daycare rehabilitation facilities (n=24) and people discharged from rehabilitation hospitals (n=15). Results confirmed an increase in activities and situations of participating in social-life, as well as an in increase in the QOL. However, these improvements were limited to patients discharged from rehabilitation hospitals. It is suggested that improvements in intervention strategies would be necessary when this program is applied to patients discharged from rehabilitation hospitals.
We examined if the influence of the Sense of Coherence (SOC) on depression and subjective well-being was mediated by preference for the spontaneous self-concept. University students (N=93) participated in the study. The Twenty Statement Test was used to assess their preferences for the spontaneous self-concept. Structural equation modeling examined mediating effects. Results indicated that the influence of SOC on depression was partially mediated by the preference for the spontaneous self-concept. However, SOC had a stronger influence on depression than preference for the spontaneous self-concept. Additionally, only the positive path from SOC to subjective well-being was significant with no mediation effect of the preference for the spontaneous self-concept.
The relationship between exercise behavior and the Big Five personality traits in Japanese adults (N=4,313, 2,618 men, 1,695 women; mean age=49.05 years, SD=10.84, age range=20–69 years) was investigated. Results indicated that exercise behavior was significantly correlated with Neuroticism (ρ=−.12), Extraversion (ρ=.18), Openness (ρ=.14), Agreeableness (ρ=.06), and Conscientiousness (ρ=.13). Controlling for sex, age, body mass index, educational level, household income, marital status, and the number of children indicated that levels of Extraversion and Openness were positively and significantly associated with exercise behavior. These findings suggest that personality traits influenced exercise behavior in Japanese people, and corroborated international studies.
This cross-sectional study used the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) to describe and investigate oral health behaviors (OHBs) of Japanese university students (N=1,074). They completed a questionnaire that inquired demographic variables and OHBs, and also assessed socio-cognitive variables such as risk perception, outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, behavioral intention, and behavioral planning. Structural equational modeling indicated that the HAPA had a good fit to the data such that it explained 28.3% of the variance in participants’ OHBs. Each path between observed HAPA variables had a significantly positive influence on each variable. However, risk perception and positive outcome expectancy did not have a significant influence on behavioral intention. It is concluded that HAPA is a valid model for explaining OHBs among Japanese university students.
Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) is one of the most prevalent food allergy in young children. The first line strategy of patients with CMA is avoiding cow’s milk and milk products. Parents of children with CMA often hold heavy psychological burden and need accurate information to cope with it. The aim of this study is to develop a psychoeducational intervention program for mothers of children with milk allergy. The tentative psychoeducational intervention consisted of two components: provision of accurate information on CMA, and supportive group therapy focusing on problem-solving skills improvement. Verbatim comments described in a questionnaire indicated that the psychological burden of participating mothers was reduced and their mental health was improved as a result of the intervention, while maternal anxiety scale assessed about their children’s growth at the follow-up session was increased compared with that assessed before the program. It was suggested that our tentative psychoeducational program might have partially mitigated the psychological burden of mothers with children suffering from a milk allergy.
The Expanded Sense of Mission Scale was developed to identify the association between the “expanded sense of mission” and stress reactions. We developed 44 items concerning the expanded sense of mission. Workers (N=313) responded to these items, as well as to the Japanese version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. Results of factor analyzing the responses to the items on the expanded sense of mission extracted four factors: “Contribution to society,” “Contribution to colleagues,” “Upskilling-oriented nature of work” and “Directions for developing new businesses.” These factors consisting of 19 items were included in the new Expanded Sense of Mission Scale. Moreover, the reliability and the criterion-related validity of the Expanded Sense of Mission Scale was confirmed.