The ‘meaning in life’ has been associated with subjective happiness across the lifespan. This study was designed to investigate the factor structure, levels, and correlates of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ) containing two subscales–presence of the meaning in life, and the search for meaning – among Japanese adults (n=2,000). The questionnaire was completed via an Internet survey by respondents in four life stages: emerging adulthood, young adulthood, middle-age adulthood, and older adulthood. A multigroup confirmatory factor analysis across the groups supported the two-factor model and the structural invariance of the MLQ. In general, those in later life stages displayed a greater level of presence of meaning in life, which was strongly associated with subjective happiness. A higher level of search for meaning was also displayed by those in later life stages, even though its association with subjective happiness was rather weak. The latter finding regarding the search for meaning conflicted with previous findings in US samples. These findings suggest that the Japanese version of MLQ is a useful instrument for future research and that further investigation of the dynamic role of the meaning in life across the lifespan among culturally diverse samples would be highly desirable.
Part-time high schools (PT-HS) are a special school arrangement for adolescents with difficulties, such as financial problems that prevent them from attending full-time high schools (FT-HS). Recent research has indicated that adolescents attending PT-HS may have excessive self-denying thoughts, lower interpersonal skills, and/or mental health problems. However, little research has been conducted on the psychological features of adolescents in PT-HS. This study investigated self-denying thoughts; such as cognitive distortions, interpersonal skills; such as social skills, and mental health problems; such as depression, among adolescents attending PT-HS. Adolescents (N=250) attending two PT-HSs and two FT-HSs were compared. Results indicated that adolescents attending PT-HS were more likely to have poor socials skills, such as increased difficulty in starting and maintaining relationships, compared to adolescents attending FT-HS. The results of this study indicate the need for psychological support for improving the social skills of adolescents attending PT-HS.
The Giving and Receiving Instructions Skills (GRIS) Scale was developed by focusing on interactive behaviors when communicating information. A 40-item questionnaire was administered to nurses (N=324) in acute-care hospitals with 1–4 years of experience. A 40-item questionnaire was administered to nurses (N=324) in acute-care hospitals with 1–4 years of experience (N=115). Exploratory factor analysis extracted 14 items and five factors: “Giving supplementary information”, Confirming with the partner”, “Reconsidering and checking”, “Insufficient examination of instructions”, and “Supporting and requesting”. Results indicated the adequate reliability of the GRIS Scale (α=.70–.82). Moreover, the GRIS scale showed a significant correlation with the Communication Skill Scale (r=.33–.43, p<.01) and the Attitudes and Behaviors Fostering Organizational Learning from Incidents (r=.43–.52, p<.01) Scale, which indicated the relevance of GRIS. Furthermore, confirmatory factor analysis indicated sufficient goodness of fit of the GRIS Scale. These findings demonstrate that the GRIS Scale has adequate reliability and validity.