Radish is a universally known food plant. Leaves of radish are widely used for their culinary and medicinal properties. In this study we report the hypertensive and vasoconstrictor effects of the aqueous crude extract of radish leaves (Rl.Cr) mediated possibly via activation of α-adrenergic receptors. Rl.Cr, that tested positive for the presence of saponins and alkaloids, exhibited a dose-dependent (10-300 mg/kg) hypertensive effect in the blood pressure (BP) of rats under anaesthesia. This effect was blocked in the presence of phentolamine (2 mg/kg), similar to norepinephrine (NE) a standard adrenergic agonist. Further investigations were conducted on the isolated tissue preparations. In rabbit aorta, Rl.Cr showed a dose-dependent (0.3-5 mg/ml) vasoconstrictor effect that was sensitive to phentolamine pretreatment. Phentolamine pretreatment also shifted the curves of Rl.Cr in a parallel manner to the right in aorta, similar to NE, thus possibly confirming the adrenergic receptor mediated effect. However, Rl.Cr was devoid of any activity in isolated guinea pig atria up to the dose of 10 mg/ml indicating that the extract has a specific α-adrenergic effect independent of β-adrenergic receptor involvement. Thus the study shows hypertensive and vasoconstrictor activities of radish leaves extract possibly mediated via interaction at α-adrenergic receptors.
Background: Prognostic significance of white coat hypertension (WCH) remains controversial and most of the studies have just focused on the progression to hypertension (HT) or whether or not it already causes target organ damage. Methods: We studied consecutive adults and eldelies with sustained normotension (NT), WCH, and HT applying to the Internal Medicine Polyclinic. A 10 day twice daily measurement of blood pressure at home (HBP) was obtained in all cases, and a 24 hr ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was performed just for the cases with higher office and/or HBP measurements. Prevalences of smoking, overweight, obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, type II diabetes mellitus, hyperbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and dyslipidemia were calculated in each group and results were compared in between. Comparison of proportions was used as the statistical analysis method. Results: The study totally included 169 cases, 54 with sustained NT, 66 with WCH, and 49 with HT. The 115 patients with WCH and HT were both diagnosed via HBP and ABPM, and no difference was observed between the two methods for the diagnosis of WCH and masked or obvious HT. Except the smoking and overweight, almost all of the above disorders showed a stepwise and significant progression in frequencies from sustained NT toward WCH and HT. Conclusions: WCH should preferentially be accepted as a disorder associated with a greater all-cause mortality, rather than a predisposing factor of HT or atherosclerosis alone, and its management should be focused on the above comorbid disorders.
Saliva sampling has the advantage of being noninvasive and stress free. Based on a recent study, salivary ultraweak chemiluminescence (UCL) is a new biomarker of psychologic stress. However, it is not clear what causes changes in the UCL level and whether the change is biologically significant. We investigated the candidates for salivary UCL induced by psychological stressors and discuss the physiologic function of these candidates. Volunteers completed a questionnaire and then performed the Kraepelin test. Saliva was sampled just before, immediately after, and 30 min after the stress exposure. The UCL of saliva significantly increased just after stress exposure (1.56-fold) and returned to prestress levels after 30 min. The concentration of secretory immunoglobulin A also increased significantly and the change in both biomarkers was rapid. Similar significant changes were observed in salivary peroxidase activity and the concentration of thiocyanate (SCN-). On the other hand, the levels of amylase activity did not significantly increase and the concentration of cortisol increased slowly. Moreover, in the reconstitution experiment, UCL was generated at the same level by a mixture of peroxidase and SCN- at physiologic concentrations. In conclusion, we determined that the Kraepelin test as a mental arithmetic task elicited a significant response in the body and this response can be calculated using salivary UCL. Furthermore, SCN- and peroxidase in the saliva play a key role in salivary UCL.
Kalpaamruthaa (KA), a modified indigenous Siddha formulation constitutes Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract (SA), Phyllanthus emblica and honey. The present study attempt has been to investigate the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of KA. Antioxidant activity of KA was determined by using ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid methods. KA showed higher antioxidant activity when compared with vitamin E (α-tochoperol), a well-known antioxidant. Immunomodulatory activities on humoral and cellular immunity were studied by heam-agglutination (HA) titre, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and phagocytic index. KA was administered at the dosage level of 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Also, KA enhanced the HA titre, phagocytic index and delayed type hypersensitivity in a dose dependent manner, which indicates that KA triggers both humoral and cell mediated immune responses to a greater extent. This improved antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of KA might be due to the synergistic effect of flavonoids, vitamin C and hydrolysable tannins present in the drug. The current study shows that KA is effective at the dosage level of 200 mg/kg body weight were significantly induced immunomodulatory activity in a dose dependant manner.
To determine the effects of optical isomerism on the estrogenic activity of 4-nonylphenol (NP) isomers, four optically active NP isomers, (3R)-4-(3-ethyl-2-methylhexan-2-yl)phenol, (3S)-4-(3-ethyl-2-methylhexan-2-yl)phenol, (4R)-4-(2,4-dimethylheptan-4-yl)phenol and (4S)-4-(2,4-dimethylheptan-4-yl)phenol, were prepared and separated using chiral HPLC. Their absolute configurations were elucidated by X-ray crystallographic analysis of their bromobenzoylated derivatives. The estrogenic activities (recombinant yeast screen assay) of the optically active NPs were similar to those of the corresponding racemates.
In the present study, we examined the antibiotic sensitivity of 19 bacterial strains [5 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 2 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), 2 Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium), 5 Escherichia coli (E. coli), 3 Cedecea sp., 1 Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), and 1 Burkholderia cepacia (B. cepacia)], which were isolated from renal transplantation patients using the Kirby-Bauer method. We also investigated the production of β-lactamase and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), and the presence of the integrase gene (intI1) and resistance gene cassette. Among the 19 strains tested, all displayed severe multiresistance, and 12 strains produced β-lactamase, in which 6 strains were ESBL positive. Eleven strains were revealed to possess the class 1 integron; however, neither class 2 nor 3 was detected. Additionally, 3 drug resistance genes, aadA2, dfrA17, and aadA5, were found in some strains. The results indicate that the horizontal transfer of the β-lactamase gene and/or the class 1 integron may contribute significantly to the spread of multiresistant bacteria among renal transplantation patients.
The effect of bee pollen cistus extract on serum and bone biochemical components in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats was investigated. The water-solubilized extracts were obtained from the bee pollen of Cistus ladaniferus. Rats received a single subcutaneous administration of STZ (6.0 mg/100 g body weight), and then the animals were orally administered water-solubilized extract (5, 10, or 20 mg/100 g body weight) of bee pollen cistus once daily for 14 days. The administration of STZ caused a significant decrease in body weight and a significant increase in serum glucose, triglyceride, and calcium levels, indicating a diabetic state. These alterations were significantly prevented by the administration of the extract (5, 10, or 20 mg/100 g). Serum inorganic phosphorus concentration was significantly decreased in STZ-diabetic rats, and the decrease was significantly prevented after administration of the extract of 10 or 20 mg/100 g. Calcium content and alkaline phosphatase activity in the femoral-diaphyseal and -metaphyseal tissues were significantly decreased in STZ-diabetic rats. These decrease were significantly prevented after administration of the extract of 10 or 20 mg/100 g. The disphyseal DNA content was also significantly decreased in STZ-diabetic rats. This decrease was significantly prevented after the administration of the extract of 10 or 20 mg/100 g. This study demonstrates that the intake of bee pollen cistus extract has preventive effects on bone loss in STZ-diabetic rats, and that the intake has partial restorative effects on serum biochemical findings with the diabetic state.
The protective effect of a Japanese herbal medicine, Toki-Shakuyaku-San extract (TJ-23) was investigated on β-Amyloid protein (β40)-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. TJ-23 has been reported to activate cholinergic neurons in the brain, and to aid in the recovery from the spatial cognition disorder induced by scopolamine in rats. The association between neuron death in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and apoptosis has attracted attention, and studies in cultured cells have suggested that β-Amyloid protein induces cell death by apoptosis. The pathway for the induction of apoptosis is caspase cascade activation. In addition, caspase-3 activation due to β-induced injury in PC12 cells has been reported. We evaluated the caspase-3 activity of TJ-23 on β-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells using a fluorophotometer. In our study, TJ-23 significantly inhibited the increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release following β40-induced cell injury and significantly increased 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction, significantly increasing the cell survival rate. These results suggested the protective effects of TJ-23. In addition, the inhibition of β40-induced cell injury and the significant increase in the cell survival rate by TJ-23 were continuous, suggesting continuous protective effects. TJ-23 significantly inhibited caspase-3 activation due to β40-induced cell injury. These results suggest that a pathway via caspase-3 activation is one of the mechanisms of the protective effects of TJ-23.
The preventive effect of Saldi tierra containing various trace elements on bone loss which is induced in rats with diabetes or adjuvant arthritis were investigated. Rats received a single subcutaneous administration of streptozotocin (STZ) (6.0 mg/100 g body weight), and the animals were orally administered a solution of Saldi tierra (25 or 50 mg/100 g) once daily for 14 days. STZ-administered rats caused a significant increase in serum glucose, triglyceride, or calcium levels and a significant decrease in body weight or serum inorganic phosphorus levels. These alterations were significantly restored after the oral administration of Saldi tierra. The femoral-diaphyseal and -metaphyseal calcium contents were significantly decreased in STZ-diabetic rats. This decrease was significantly inhibited after the administration of Saldi tierra (25 or 50 mg/100 g). The decreases in diaphyseal and metaphyseal alkaline phosphatase activity and metaphyseal DNA content were significantly prevented after the administration of Saldi tierra (50 mg/100 g). Meanwhile, rats received an injection of 1% Mycobacterium butyricum suspension into the subplantar surface of the right hind paw, and the animals were orally administered Saldi tierra (50 mg/100 g) once daily for 18 days. Calcium content, alkaline phosphatase activity, and DNA content in the femoral-metaphyseal tissues were significantly decreased in rats with adjuvant arthritis. These decreases were significantly inhibited after the administration of Saldi tierra (50 mg/100 g). This study demonstrates that the intake of Saldi tierra has preventive effects against bone loss in rats with diabetes or adjuvant arthritis in vivo.
The purpose of the study was to determine whether poor hypertension control is due to lack of systolic blood pressure control, diastolic blood pressure control or both. We analyzed data from 10854 Chinese patients (age ≥ 35 years old) with hypertension from 60 villages of Fuxin County between 2004 and 2005 in Liaoning province of China. We screened for hypertension with a systolic blood pressure of ≥ 140 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure of ≥ 90 mmHg, or those who were taking antihypertensive therapy at the time of the examination. Blood pressure control was defined as systolic goal (systolic < 140 mmHg), diastolic goal (diastolic < 90 mmHg), or both (systolic < 140 mmHg and diastolic < 90 mmHg). Statistical analysis was performed using the software of Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5, and a value of P < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Of 10854 hypertensive patients (mean age 56.2 years, 50.2% women), 14.7% were controlled to systolic goal, 33.9% were controlled to diastolic goal, and 1.0% were controlled to both. Among 2450 subjects who were undergoing antihypertensive therapy (22.6% of all hypertensive patients), 6.5% were controlled to systolic goal, 22.1% were controlled to diastolic goal, and 4.3% were controlled to both. Thus, poor systolic blood pressure control was overwhelmingly responsible for poor rates of overall control to goal. Covariates associated with lack of systolic control in treated patients included older age (compared with patients aged 35 to 44 years, Odds Ratio (OR) for age 55 to 64 years, 1.814, 95% CI 1.087-3.028; OR for age ≥ 65 years, 2.753, 95% CI 1.558-4.863) and prevalent CVD (cardiovascular disease) (OR 0.666, 95% CI 0.464-0.956). The same covariates were associated with the lack of both control (systolic < 140 mmHg and diastolic < 90 mmHg). In this rural community-based sample of middle-aged and older subjects, overall rates of antihypertensive therapy and hypertension control were lower than those in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2002. Poor blood pressure control was overwhelmingly due to lack of systolic control, even among the treated subjects. Therefore, greater emphasis should be placed by clinicians and policymakers on the achievement of systolic goal levels in all hypertensive patients, especially in the elderly.
Beef patties were irradiated with γ-rays at three temperatures, room temperature, chilled, and frozen. 2-Alkylcyclobutanones in irradiated beef patties were then analyzed to confirm the effects of the three temperatures during irradiation on their production. The production of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-TCB) were decreased in the samples cooled with ice and dry ice compared with those at room temperature. 2-DCB was dominant in the samples irradiated at room temperature, which reflected the composition of the precursor of the fatty acid in the samples, whereas they became lower than 2-TCB in the samples irradiated with cooling. The data indicate that the temperature during irradiation greatly affects the radiolytic production of 2-alkylcyclobutanones, particularly 2-DCB, as well as precursor concentrations.
A traditional Japanese Kampo medicine Keishininjinto has been empirically used for the treatment of headache, chronic gastroenteritis, gastric atony, and waterly diarrhea often accompanying abdominal pain, cold, fever, and headache. One of the mechanisms of the empirical effects is assumed to be due to local changes in gut-regulated peptide levels. We studied the effects of Keishininjinto on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-, substance P-, vasoactive intestinal polypeptides (VIP)-, motilin-, and somatostatin-like immunoreactive substances (IS) in plasma taken from healthy subjects. Keishininjinto (6.0 g) or placebo was orally administered to five healthy males. Blood samples were taken before, and at 20, 40, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 min after administration, followed by the extracting procedure, and submitted to a highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay system for CGRP-, substance P-, VIP-, motilin-, and somatostatin-IS. A single oral administration of Keishininjinto caused significant increases in plasma CGRP-, and substance P-IS levels compared with placebo. On the other hand, a single oral administration of Keishininjinto transiently caused decreases in plasma VIP-IS levels compared with placebo. However, Keishininjinto had no effects on plasma motilin-, and somatostatin-IS levels. In this study, we hypothesized that Keishininjinto might stimulate capsaicin-sensitive afferent nerves and improve gastrointestinal mucosal blood flow, and that might affect intestinal secretion and motility in neuronal reflexes.
Many clinical trials showed that antiatherosclerotic drugs could significantly reduce the mortality in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of statins, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), antiplatelet drugs, beta-blockers, diuretics, and hypoglycemic drugs in hospitalized Chinese patients with PAD. Nine hundred fifty-eight hospitalized patients (mean age 72.35 ± 9.39 years, 472 male) with PAD were continuously enrolled in a cohort study from June to December 2004 and followed up for 13.31 ± 0.11 months. Cox's proportional hazards model analysis of mortality adjusted for other risk factors in relation to diuretics, statins, CCBs, and risk factors showed that diuretic use [relative risk (RR) 1.682, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.184-2.389] was independently associated with an increased all-cause mortality rate, but statins (RR 0.457, 95% CI: 0.306-0.681) and CCBs (RR 0.677, 95% CI: 0.469-0.978) were independently associated with a decreased all-cause mortality rate during 13 months of follow-up. Statins (RR 0.459, 95% CI: 0.257-0.820) and CCBs (RR 0.443, 95% CI: 0.243-0.810) were significantly associated with a decreased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality rate during 13 months of follow-up. Statins and CCBs were independent protective factors against all-cause mortality and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease mortality, while diuretic use was an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in patients with PAD during the 13 months of follow-up.
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is mainly produced by osteoblasts in bone tissue, and acts as a potent stimulator of bone resorption. In osteoblasts, PGE2 production was greatly stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) following the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and membrane-bound PGE synthase (mPGES)-1 mRNA. In the coculture of mouse bone marrow cells and osteoblasts, LPS induced PGE production and osteoclast formation, and EP4 antagonist completely suppressed osteoclast formation, indicating that the PGE2-mediated EP4 signal is essential for LPS-induced osteoclast formation. Inflammatory bone diseases including periodontitis are known to be accompanied by bone loss with increased osteoclastogenesis. To examine the role of EP4-mediated PGE2 action in periodontitis, we examined the effects of EP4 antagonist on LPS-induced bone resorption using mouse alveolar bone. In an organ culture of alveolar bone, LPS-induced bone resorbing activity and EP4 antagonist suppressed this LPS-induced bone resorption. In an experimental model of periodontitis, LPS was injected into the lower gingiva, and the bone mineral density of alveolar bone was measured. LPS-induced the loss of alveolar bone, which was recovered by the treatment with EP4 antagonist in vivo. Therefore, EP4 antagonist is a possible candidate for the therapy of inflammatory bone disease including periodontitis.
Vanilloid receptor-1 (VR1) has been reported to exhibit multiple functions which can transduce painsensitive signals in nerve systems. A VR1 ligand, capsaicin, has been reported to show activities against inflammation and cancer growth, however, its role in bone metabolism is still unknown. Here, we examined the effect of capsaicin on cytokine-induced inflammatory bone resorption. Capsaicin suppressed interleukin-1-induced bone resorption in a mouse calvarial organ ex vivo culture in a dose-dependent manner. An assay using cocultures of osteoblasts and bone marrow cells clearly showed the inhibition of osteoclast formation by treatment with capsaicin. Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), the sole inducer of osteoclast formation, is known to be produced by osteoblasts. In the cocultures of bone marrow cells and osteoblasts, the expression of RANKL was suppressed by capsaicin. VR1 showed expression predominantly in osteoblasts, suggesting that capsaicin directly modulates osteoclast differentiation through the suppression of RANKL expression. VR1 ligands like capsaicin have the potential for use as clinical drugs targeting some bone diseases involving cytokine-induced bone resorption.
The present study investigated the acute and subacute toxicity of Diakyur, a polyherbal antidiabetic formulation, in experimental animal models. Diakyur contains aqueous extract dry powders of Cassia auriculata, Gymnema sylvestre, Mucuna pruriens, Syzygium jambolanum, Terminalia arjuna, Salacia reticulata, and a crude powder of Cassia javanica. The raw materials were standardized by gravimetric, HPLC and High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) methods for their respective bioactive marker compounds. In an acute toxicity study, Diakyur was administered orally at doses ranging from 100-12800 mg/kg p.o. and the animals were observed for any toxic symptoms up to 72 hr. The results indicated there were no toxic symptoms up to the dose level of 12800 mg/kg p.o. In a subacute toxicity study, Diakyur was tested at the dose of 1600 mg/kg p.o. once daily for 28 days. The animals were sacrificed on the 29th day and various blood biochemical parameters were measured. The liver, kidney, heart, adrenals, pancreas and uterus were processed for histopathological study. The results of the 28 day subacute toxicity study did not show evidence of any changes in body weight, food and water intake, hematological parameters, liver and kidney function tests when compared with the control animals. The vital organs of animals treated with Diakyur for 28 days did not show any histopathological evidence of pathological lesions. From the results it is concluded that Diakyur at the dose of 1600 mg/kg p.o. is safe for long-term treatment in diabetic conditions.