Kalpaamruthaa (KA), a modified indigenous Siddha formulation constitutes Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract, Emblica officinalis and honey. KA is evaluated for its behavioral and toxicological effects and also its consequence on biochemical and histological variations. Acute and subacute toxicity studies with KA were done on Wistar Albino rats. During acute toxicity study (72 hr), there were no any adverse effects found in the general behavior and mortality at any dose level given (50-2000 mg/kg b.wt.). In subacute toxicity study (30 days) KA (50, 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.wt.) did not cause any changes in hematological and biochemical parameters with the exception of a transient rise in hemoglobin, leukocyte count, free fatty acid, plasma and urine creatinine and a significant decrease in blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid levels. The changes observed are significant only at the highest dosage of 500 mg/kg b.wt. Further, histopathological examination of vital organs showed normal architecture suggesting no morphological disturbances; it can be considered that KA is safe and non toxic.
The vegetation of Abuja, Nigeria's new Federal Capital Territory is predominantly guinea savannah. The need for a new Federal Capital Territory for Nigeria was necessitated by the congestion and environmental problems in the old capital. Nitrates are widespread in soil, and are present in small amounts in plant and animal tissues. Water and food containing high nitrate concentrations are potentially harmful to infants and young children. Nitrate content of Stream water, soil and some food samples was assessed, in Wuse, Garki and Maitama with a view to determine regular monitoring of the environment in the Municipal of Nigeria's Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. River water, soil and food samples from Wuse, Garki and Maitama were collected during the rainy (July) season and dry (February) season. Nitrates and ammonia levels were determined using spectrophotometer. Results showed a low contamination pattern of nitrates in river water, soil and foodstuff samples. Regular monitoring of Nitrate levels need to be put in place to check for contamination levels.
Ingestion of Frankincense [Boswellia thurifera (B. thurifera)] resin at a dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 60 days by adult male rats was investigated for effects on fertility. Average weights of epididymis, ventral prostate and seminal vesicles increased significantly. Sperm motility and density were also significantly increased in cauda epididymis and in testes in Frankincense-treated groups. A significant increase of spermatogenesis in testes due to increase in the number of primary, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids in the treatment groups was attributed to a significant increase in testosterone and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). In addition, it also increased the number of implantations and the number of viable fetuses in female rats impregnated by these males, thereby increasing their fertility. The histometery of reproductive organs confirmed those results.
The biotransformation of d-amphetamine into p-hydroxyamphetamine (HA) by cytochrome P450 occurs in several species besides humans. The extent of HA excretion varies among species and the oxidative pathway involved in this biotransformation is reported to be implicated in the toxic effects of d-amphetamine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of dose and repeated administration of d-amphetamine on the urinary excretion of d-amphetamine and HA in mice. Charles River Caesarian Derived (CD)-1 mice, kept in metabolic cages, were treated with d-amphetamine (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p., daily, for 14 days). Urine was collected at 24 hr intervals and analyzed by HPLC for the quantification of d-amphetamine and HA. Urinary excretion of d-amphetamine increased in a dose dependent manner, the urinary levels being fairly constant after the 4th day. On the other hand the urinary excretion of HA increased during the whole time of d-amphetamine dosing and was not dose dependent. Cortical tubule degeneration was observed for the two higher doses, which may explain the HA excretion pattern, although inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) after high d-amphetamine dosing may also be involved.
Acetaldehyde production during ethanol metabolism has been implicated as an important link between oxidative stress and cell damage, which suggests that oxidative stress caused by ethanol exposure may be more severe in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2)-deficient individuals than in those with wild-type ALDH2. We evaluated the activities of the major antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in liver tissue isolated from Aldh2 +/+ and Aldh2 -/- mice that were exposed to ethanol. The activities of CAT and GPx were significantly increased by ethanol treatment in Aldh2 +/+ mice (3.33-fold and 1.65-fold, respectively). The mean activity of SOD in Aldh2 +/+ mice was 1.46-fold that in the Aldh2 +/+ control group, but the difference was not statistically significant. In Aldh2 -/- mice, the activities of SOD and CAT were decreased and that of GPx was slightly increased after ethanol exposure, but the differences were not significant. We postulate that antioxidant enzyme expression after ethanol consumption may differ according to the intracellular level of acetaldehyde or free radicals, which in turn depends on the activity of ALDH2. These results suggest that the greater toxicity of ethanol in Aldh2 -/- mice than in Aldh2 +/+ mice may be due to decreased antioxidant enzyme expression.
Dementia is a brain disorder that seriously affects a person's ability to carry out daily activities. The most common form of dementia among older people is Alzheimer's disease (AD), which initially involves the parts of the brain that control thought, memory, and language, ending with severe brain damage. Nootropic agents like, piracetam, and cholinesterase inhibitors like, donepezil are commonly used for improving memory, mood and behavior but their adverse effects have made their use limited and it is worthwhile to explore the utility of traditional medicines in the treatment of various cognitive disorders. Argyreia speciosa (AS) commonly known as Vridha daraka is widely used in ayurveda for the treatment of neurological disorders. The present work was undertaken to assess the potential of AS as a nootropic and anti-cholinesterase agent in mice. Effectiveness of aqueous extract of AS on ageing, scopolamine and diazepam induced memory deficits in mice was evaluated. Elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm were employed to assess short-term and long term memory. In order to delineate the possible mechanism through which AS elicits the anti-amnesic effects, the whole brain acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity, was also assessed. Two doses (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) of aqueous extract of AS were administered orally for 6 successive days to both young and aged mice. AS decreased transfer latencies and increased step down latencies in both young and aged mice AS (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) successfully reversed amnesia induced by diazepam, scopolamine and natural ageing. AS significantly decreased AChE levels in the whole brain homogenate indicating its potential in the attenuation of learning and memory deficits especially in the aged mice.
Tranexamic acid (TA) reduces hyperpigmentation in melasma patients, but the mechanism of its action is unknown. We have investigated the action of TA in human melanocyte cultures with or without keratinocyte-conditioned medium (KCM). In melanocyte cultures without KCM, TA in the concentration range of 0.5 mM to 5 mM did not reduce the activity of tyrosinase, a key enzyme of melanin synthesis, whereas it reduced the tyrosinase activity in the presence of KCM. These results indicate that TA inhibits melanin synthesis of melanocytes not by acting directly on melanocytes, but by inhibiting melanocyte activators contained in KCM. In fractionation studies of KCM, the stimulatory activity was predominantly contained in the fractions with an apparent molecular weight of 54000. Inhibition of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in KCM with specific anti-uPA antibody significantly decreased the KCM-induced increase of tyrosinase activity and inhibited the KCM-induced morphological changes of melanocytes. Our results suggest that TA inhibits melanin synthesis in melanocytes by interfering with the interaction of melanocytes and keratinocytes through inhibition of the plasminogen/plasmin system.
Since no definitive standard exists for setting the expiration date of edible raw sea urchins, it is up to the importer or domestic processing manufacturer to assign an expiration date. In the present study, we performed a microbiological examination of 126 raw sea urchin samples collected from distributors at Tsukiji Market (Tokyo Metropolitan Central Wholesale Market) and evaluated their expiration dates. The expiration dates were set at 5 to 8 days after processing in approximately 80% of the products; however, microbiological examination of the samples indicated that the dates were not sufficiently accurate. Of the products, 27% did not meet the microbiological standards for freshness established by the Tokyo metropolitan government during the period preceding their expiration dates. Our results suggest that the expiration date of edible fresh raw sea urchins should be based on a microbiological examination.
Rat prostate, which is usually used in the Hershberger assay for evaluating the antiandrogenic activity of environmental chemicals in vivo, has a complex structure consisting 4 lobes, i.e., the ventral prostate (VP), lateral prostate (LP), dorsal prostate (DP) and anterior prostate (AP). The VP is considered to have no counterpart in primates, while the LP and DP are histologically similar to human prostate. However, the Hershberger assay focuses on the VP, not the other lobes. Moreover, there are few other methods for assessment of antiandrogenic activity in vivo. We therefore investigated androgen-responsive genes in the DP, as well as VP, following treatment with environmental chemicals reported to be androgen antagonists. Male castrated F344 rats were treated with testosterone (0.5 mg·kg-1·day-1) alone or together with flutamide (6 mg·kg-1·day-1) as a reference antiandrogen or fenthion (25 mg·kg-1·day-1) or fenitrothion (25 mg·kg-1·day-1) or 2,4,4'-trihydroxybenzophenone (2,4,4'-triOH-BP) (300 mg·kg-1·day-1) for 7 days. Testosterone significantly increased the expression of kallikrein S3, cystatin-related protein-1 (CRP-1) and prostatein C3 mRNAs in the VP, and prostate secretory protein of 94 amino acids (PSP94) mRNA, but not stem cell growth factor (SCGF) mRNA, in the DP. Coadministration of flutamide blocked the testosterone-induced increases of all three mRNAs in the VP, but not that of PSP94 mRNA in the DP. Coadministration of fenitrothion significantly reduced the testosterone-induced increase of kallikrein S3 mRNA, while fenthion significantly increased the testosterone-induced increase of PSP94 mRNA. 2,4,4'-TriOH-BP significantly increased the testosterone-induced increases of CRP-1 and prostatein C3 mRNAs. These results indicate that the effects of environmental chemicals on the prostate are very complex. The Hershberger assay alone appears to be inadequate for risk assessment, and it may be useful to employ androgen-responsive genes as additional markers.
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the rate-limiting key enzyme in the biosynthesis of polyamines which have been confirmed to possess potent antioxidant and antiglycating properties. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of the ODC polymorphism and circulating whole blood polyamine concentrations. The study subjects were non-smoking, healthy men (n=30) and women (n=30) aged 55-69 years with equal numbers of AA, GA, and GG genotypes of the ODC gene, who were randomly recruited from 607 health checkup examinees. The whole blood polyamines (spermidine and spermine) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and were adjusted for hematocrit. The difference in the adjusted polyamines across the ODC gene was statistically tested using analysis of covariance. Women homozygous for the A-allele showed significantly higher spermidine levels than those with other genotypes. No such association was found among men, and spermine showed no association with the ODC genotype. In conclusion, the ODC polymorphism is significantly associated with whole blood polyamines in women. The ODC gene seems to be expressed more actively among female A-allele homozygotes than women carrying the G-allele.
Authors have developed a new analytical method for gaseous carbonyl compounds in indoor air using a passive sampler. The sampler consists of a porous polyethylene cylinder uniformly packed with O-(4-cyano-2-ethoxybenzyl)hydroxylamine (CNET) coated silica gel as a reactive adsorbent. After sampling, CNET derivatives were eluted by acetonitrile and subsequently determined by HPLC. Sampling rates for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were determined by a small chamber experiment with a constant gas generation system and resulted in 74 ml/min for formaldehyde, 44 ml/min for acetaldehyde and 42 ml/min for acetone. Effects of exposure time (8 and 24 hr), temperature (10, 25 and 40°C) and relative humidity (31-94%) on the rate were not apparent under the given conditions. The passive sampler was then applied for field measurements of carbonyl compounds in indoor air and gave similar results when compared to active samplings using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) coated cartridges. The Ames test showed the CNET is preferable in safety handling because of its lower mutagenic activities than those of DNPH. Carbonyl compounds can be determined with reduced interference of ozone, because the CNET was less degradable when exposed to ozone compared with DNPH. Therefore, the CNET is a possible alternative to DNPH as trapping reagent in the passive sampling device for the determination of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone in indoor air.
Antimicrobial agents used in antimicrobial products are classified into inorganic, organic, and natural organic compounds. Inorganic agents, such as Cu, Zn, and Ag compounds, are known to be relatively safe, and these agents are used in many kinds of products. Patients with metal allergy and infants should avoid coming in contact with products in which inorganic agents are used at high concentrations. However, areas treated with metal compound agents and their concentrations are not indicated in most commercially available products. In this study, to establish a simple method of measuring the concentrations of metals in product areas, we evaluated screening methods using non-destructive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). Qualitative analysis by XRF and quantitative analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) were performed in the same areas, and the results were compared. Furthermore, concentrations of metals used in 40 commercially available antimicrobial products (86 areas) were analyzed. As the result, XRF was useful for the screening of Cu and Zn, but not for the screening of Ag. The use of inorganic antimicrobial treatment was indicated on 11 products, but 25 products were treated with inorganic antimicrobial agents. Cu was detected in 11 products. Ag was detected in 5 products, in which Cu or Zn were contained at higher concentrations. In 18 products, Zn was used for the antimicrobial treatment.
Vibrio mimicus (V. mimicus), a causative agent of gastroenteritis and food poisoning, secretes a 63-kDa enterotoxic hemolysin as the most potent virulence factor. The vmhA gene encoding an 83-kDa precursor of the hemolysin was expressed from the early to late log phase of the bacterial growth, and the 79-kDa inactive protoxin was detected from the culture supernatant in the same growth phase. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the protoxin was determined to be NH2-Asn-Ile-Ser-Asp-Pro-Val indicating cleavage of the Ala25-Asn26 bond by a signal peptidase. In contrast, the hemolytic activity and the mature hemolysin in the culture supernatant were detected only at the late log phase. The maturation of the hemolysin, therefore, is suggested to be achieved by two-step processing, cleavage of the signal peptide followed by the growth phase-dependent removal of the 16-kDa propeptide.
We investigated the effect of ipriflavone (IP) on osteoblasts and osteoclasts during guided bone augmentation (GBA). Each of ten rabbits had two titanium caps placed into its calvarium for GBA. The animals were divided into two groups: No-IP and IP (IP orally, 10 mg/kg daily after GBA). One cap was removed from each rabbit after 3 months, and the remaining cap served as a control. One month after the removal, all of the animals were euthanized, and histologic and histomorphometric analyses were performed. The tissue generated at the test site in the two groups was resorbed, and its original shape and volume were not maintained 1 month after cap removal. In particular, roughly 20% of the newly generated tissue in the No-IP group was resorbed (72.9±2.6% vs. 92.4±3.3%, p<0.05), while approximately 8% was resorbed in the IP group. Furthermore, more osteoblast-like cells were present in the IP group than in the No-IP group (44.4±3.05 vs. 30.2±3.11, p<0.05), and the proportion of osteoclast-like cells was reduced in the IP group compared to the No-IP group (0.59±0.02 vs. 0.76±0.06, p<0.05). Therefore, the amount of mineralized tissue generated appeared to increase as the total IP dose increased. Within the limitations of this experimental model, we conclude that daily intake of IP after GBA inhibits the resorption of the augmented tissue and may be useful for improving the quality of newly generated bone beyond the skeletal envelope.
Ethnic Thai and immigrant schoolchildren and villagers of Bo-ong, a village in Pilok sub-district, Thong Pha Phum District, Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand, were investigated for helminth infections in September 2003 and July 2004. Among the 143 schoolchildren, total cumulative hookworm prevalence in both surveys was 58.7%, with 47.6% for Thais and 63.4% for immigrants, while among the 183 villagers, it was 69.4% (Thais: 60.6%; immigrants: 75.0%). The efficacy of 400 mg single-dose albendazole among different hookworm-infected racial/ethnic groups was analyzed 21 days' post-treatment. Kato-Katz and polyethylene tube cultivation methods were used for stool examination. Among the 211 hookworm-positive cases in both surveys, only 82 cases from the last survey were followed up. By Kato-Katz technique, for the schoolchildren and villagers combined, the cure rate tended to be higher among the immigrants (65.0%) than the Thais (54.6%) (p=0.445). By Sasa's modified Harada-Mori culture technique, the cure rates also differed by racial grouping, and were higher (46.3%) among the immigrants and lower (27.8%) among the Thais (p=0.269). However, similar egg reduction rates were found for the two racial groups, at 96.0 and 92.6%, respectively. In addition, a higher intensity of hookworm infection tolerated albendazole therapy, lower cure rates were obtained in moderate-to-heavy infections (56.3%) and higher rates for light infections (63.6%) among the total population. There were no significant differences in drug efficacy among the 2 ethnic groups of Thai and immigrants (p>0.05) in Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand.
Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental pollutant that causes severe neuropathy in the brain of exposed humans and animals. It is possible that MeHg induces functional damage of the brain microvessels and neuropathy occurs secondarily. Thus, the effects of MeHg on the maintenance of vascular endothelial cell monolayer were investigated using a culture system of human brain microvascular endothelial cells. MeHg did not damage the morphology of the monolayer; however, it retarded the repair of the wounded monolayer. The proliferation of endothelial cells was observed to be inhibited by MeHg when assessed by the cell number, [3H]thymidine incorporation, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage in sparsely growing cells. Cadmium also decreased the [3H]thymidine incorporation but failed to decrease the cell number; inorganic mercury and lead did not exhibit any inhibitory effect under the same conditions. Considering these results together, it is suggested that MeHg exhibits toxicity in the brain microvessels when the endothelial monolayer is damaged. MeHg specifically inhibits the proliferation of endothelial cells during the repair process of the damaged monolayers. The present data support the hypothesis that the mechanism of MeHg-induced neuropathy in the brain includes changes in the microenvironment of the neurons caused by functional damage to the microvessels.
Niboshi is processed from the small Japanese anchovy with a 3-6 cm length by a several-minute boiling and subsequent drying. It is usually used in a variety of Japanese dishes. We assessed the Niboshi and its extract as food source of the micronutrient selenium (Se). The Se content in the Niboshi was 1.14±0.01 μg/g and up to 60% of its total Se was found in the abdominal part. After the feeding of Niboshi-supplemented diets for 7 weeks to mice, the organ Se contents and hepatic cellular and plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were comparable to those of selenious acid (SA)-fed mice. As the Niboshi is a processed foodstuff for extracting a base seasoning used in many Japanese dishes, the absorptivity of Se from its extract was further examined in dietary Se-depleted mice. The daily oral administration of the Niboshi extract to the mice for 7 days improved the Se contents in the blood and liver and the GPx activities. Thus, the Niboshi can serve as an efficient dietary source of Se in mice. Taking the daily intake habit of the Niboshi into consideration, it would contribute to the dietary intake of Se in Japan.
A rapid and simple method for the simultaneous analysis of 18 pesticides (α-(C6H6Cl6)-Benzene hexachloride, β-BHC, γ-BHC, δ-BHC, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, tecnazene, pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), hexachlorobenzene, aldrin, methyl pentachlorophenyl sulphide (MPCPS), α-endosulfan, trans-chlorodane, cis-chlorodane, p,p'-(C14H8Cl4)-Dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene, o,p'-(C14H9Cl5)-Dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane, p,p'-(C14H10Cl4)-Dichlorodiphenyl dichloeoethane, p,p'-DDT) by gas chromatography (GC) in 10 Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) has been developed. The limit of detection was found to be 1.2×10-13 to 9.0×10-13 g with the recoveries ranging from 72.9 to 114.5% and Relative Standard Deviation being less than 17.5%. In addition, the assay was applied to monitor the residues in 10 TCMs, amongst which at least one of the above pesticides were found in 67 samples. The results showed that α-BHC was the most frequently detected with a presence of 44.6% in the tested samples, whilst heptachlor epoxide, trans-chlorodane, cis-chlorodane and p,p'-DDD were not detected at all. Nonetheless, none of pesticides in all samples appeared to exceed the maximum residue limits (MRLs) seen in the Chinese regulations.
Induction of micronucleated liver cells (MN-liver cells) was examined with the hepatocarcinogenic quinoline and its fluorinated derivatives, 3-fluoroquinoline (3-FQ) and 5-fluoroquinoline (5-FQ), using non-hepatectomized rats and mice. Male F344 rats or ICR mice were given each test chemical at a daily dose of 0.5 mmol/kg for three consecutive days by i.p. injection, and sacrificed at six or eleven days after the final treatment. The data may suggest that the induction frequencies of MN-liver cells by the quinoline derivatives correlate with the magnitudes of both their medium-term carcinogenicity and bacterial mutagenicity. Thus, the potently hepatocarcinogenic/mutagenic 5-FQ caused significantly higher levels of induction of MN-liver cells than the vehicle in both rats and mice. The non-hepatocarcinogenic/non-mutagenic 3-FQ showed no appreciable differences in MN-liver cell induction from the control group in rats and mice. Quinoline showed a slight and statistically insignificant increase of MN-liver cells in mice, but there was not such increase in rats. These findings may suggest the utility of the micronucleus test using hepatocytes from non-hepatectomized animals, although its sensitivity may be low as compared with hepatectomized animals.
We calculated the effective energy of a resistant cornstarch (HB-450) by using 13CO2, H2, and CH4 breath tests to assess HB-450 digestion and fermentation in healthy female subjects. On the basis of the areas under the curves (AUCs) for the concentrations of 13CO2 and H2 following ingestion of 40 g of HB-450, 23.0±6.8 g was digested in the upper digestive tract and 3.6±2.1 g was fermented by intestinal flora. The effective energy of the 40 g dose was thus calculated as 2.5±0.8 kcal/g. These results indicate that 13CO2, H2, and CH4 breath tests are useful for measuring the effective energy of resistant cornstarch.
We analyzed the change in the intensities of spontaneous ultraweak photon emission during the growth of the cell population of HeLa cell line using a cell culture system. Comparisons of the temporal change of intensities of spontaneous ultraweak photon emission with that of the growth curve showed that the intensity followed almost the same course with the change rate kinetics of cell population. The analysis of cell viability during the growth of the cell population indicated that there is a close relationship between the intensities of photon emission and proliferative rate of viable cells. The flow-cytometric analysis indicated that the intensities of the photon emission are related primarily to the 2n diploid cell equivalent populations. We suggest that the spontaneous ultraweak photon emission is mainly involved in the changes of the ploidy number during the proliferative process of the cancer cell line. The therapeutic effects of acupuncture may be explained scientifically by the spontaneous ultraweak photon emissions from the cells during the changes of its ploidy number in the anatomical structure of acupuncture meridians.
In urban rivers in Osaka, Japan, DNA containing the stx2 gene, which encodes the Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), was found to be present in sediment, even when it was not detected in the surface water. A DNA sequence similar to that of bacteriophage 933W and the Sakai strain was detected at every sampling location. Two strains of Escherichia coli O157 carrying the stx2 gene were independently isolated from sediment. These results show that river sediment is a potential reservoir of the stx2 gene and Shiga toxin-producing bacteria in the natural environment.
Yabukita green tea leaves in Shizuoka, Kagoshima and Mie areas in Japan were analyzed for catechins and caffeine using 6-O-α-D-glucosyl-β-cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (6G-β-CD-modified MEKC). Caffeine and seven catechins [(-)-catechin (C), (+)-C, (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-catechin gallate (CG), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)], but not (+)-EC, were detected in all extracts. Linear discriminant analysis was applied to differentiate green tea samples according to their geographical origins. As a result, all samples were correctly classified, which represented a recognition ability of 100%. These results suggest that catechins and caffeine profiles of Yabukita green tea leaves could be useful to determine their growing areas in Japan.
The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant property of Emblica officinalis (E. officinalis) during restrain-stress in albino rat. Three groups of albino rat were employed namely control, restrain-stress (4 hr/day for 15 days) and E. officinalis+restrain-stress. The oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the lipid peroxidation (LPO), enzymatic antioxidant status superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the lymphoid organs of thymus and spleen and plasma corticosterone level. Following restrain-stress, enzymatic antioxidants status was significantly reduced with concomitant increase in LPO and corticosterone levels were observed. Administration of E. officinalis (500 mg/kg body weight for 30 days) significantly prevents the restrain-stress-induced oxidative stress and elevation in LPO and corticosterone levels. This study concludes that administration of E. officinalis significantly prevents the restrain-stress-induced oxidative stress and this may due to its strong antioxidant property.
Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) is a well-known perennial herb in Indian medicine used to treat various disorders like upper respiratory tract infections and wound healing. Primarily we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of crude extracts of Ocimum basilicum using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy individuals. Ocimum basilicum crude methanolic extract showed a good inhibitory effect on the proliferative response of PBMC in mitogenic lymphocyte proliferation assays. Furthermore, gene expression studies on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced production of proinflammatory cytokines like Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-2 showed down regulation of the markers. It also suppressed the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the subsequent production of nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a time-dependent manner. Our results showed that Ocimum basilicum crude methanolic extract inhibits the key proinflammatory cytokines and mediators, which accounts for its anti-inflammatory effect.