The renal extracellular matrix (ECM) is in a continual state of turnover with homeostasis maintained by balancing synthesis and degradation rates. During progressive kidney scarring an imbalance occurs leading to increase ECM either by increased deposition or decreased breakdown, although a combination of the two is more likely. Increased synthesis of many ECM proteins such as collagens I, III, and IV, fibronectin and laminin contribute to this imbalance; however decreased proteolytic activity leading to accumulation of ECM components is also an important component of scarring. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) system is predominantly responsible for degrading mature ECM, consisting of 24 members, with MMP's 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, and 13 having significant renal expression. The kidney also expresses 3 Tissue inhibitors of MMPs; TIMP-1, 2, and 3. MMPs also have a role during kidney development. Several studies describe changes in ECM proteolysis and more specifically MMPs in end stage kidney disease (ESRD), although most of these are descriptive and based on enzymatic, protein or mRNA analysis of homogenates. There is no consistency in most of these studies regarding the expression of MMPs and TIMPS in experimental kidney scarring. Few of these studies have been investigated in human kidney scarring. Here is a comprehensive review of the MMPs and TIMPs literature including their action, activation, regulation, and contribution in experimental and human CKD.
Heavy metal homeostasis and detoxification systems are often regulated by changes in gene transcription. In higher eukaryotes, metal response element (MRE)-binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) is the only known metal-sensing transcription factor and zinc is the only heavy metal which can reversibly and directly activate the DNA-binding activity of MTF-1, leading to its nuclear retention, promoter binding and induction or repression of transcription. Although, cadmium, copper and oxidative stresses can cause the activation of the DNA-binding activity of MTF-1 in vivo, they apparently do so, at least in part, by causing the redistribution of intracellular zinc. MTF-1-dependent metal-sensing transcription mechanisms are not fully understood but clearly involve zinc binding to its unique zinc finger domain. Recently, zinc has been shown to induce the formation of a co-activator complex containing MTF-1 and the histone acetyltransferase p300 which plays an essential role in the activation of mouse metallothionein-I (MT-I) gene transcription. In this review, we focus on current understanding of the mechanisms by which MTF-1 senses heavy metals and activates gene expression.
This review summarizes technical improvements in the forensic analysis for conjugate metabolites of methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and their designer drugs. The improvements include the establishments of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) in combination with the pretreatment methods. The direct determination techniques for the conjugates proved to be effective in rapidly and accurately examining many biological specimens without annoying hydrolysis. The metabolism of MA and MDMA, with attention to the phase II metabolism of the major hydroxy metabolites, is also discussed based on concentration data in biological specimens obtained from drug abusers.
There are important problems in the therapeutic use of cloning which increase with the more advanced differentiation of somatic cells. Problems include DNA reprogramming, tissue rejection, and chromatin remodeling. This study presents the first use in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) of tooth pulp cells containing progenitor cells that resemble the nonaging embryonic connective tissue in adults. Using tooth pulp cells in SCNT increased the first cleavage rates compared with adult somatic cells, leading to a higher rate of DNA reprogramming and increased production of an identical embryonic stem cells (ESCs) line. ESCs derived from tooth pulp cells using this method were observed to transfer into pancreatic β cells using transmission electron microscopy. These cells were named Osmangazi Turk Identical ESCs since this was the first use in SCNT of tooth pulp cells to demonstrate a decrease in glucose levels following administration of these cells. Furthermore, nonidentical ESC perform tissue repair by decreasing glucose levels; however, the renewed tissue was observed to undergo important alterations which affect its future. The prognosis of the therapy of mice with diabetes mellitus using Osmangazi Turk Identical ESC was good, with an 80% therapeutic efficiency. These outcomes are promising for regenerative medicine in the therapy of diabetes mellitus, and clarification of the importance of selecting appropriate adult somatic cells in deriving identical ESC lines is also a significant step.
Gyokuheifusan (GHS) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula used to treat various allergic diseases; however, there is little information about its clinical efficacy or mechanism of action. We previously showed that GHS down-regulates over-production of IgE and interleukin (IL)-4 in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma, a major Th2-dominant disease. Here, we investigated the effect of GHS in an NC/Nga mouse model of atopic dermatitis (AD) induced by mite antigen. NC/Nga mice were immunized with an intradermal injection of mite antigen extract twice a week from 6 to 12 weeks of age. GHS (3.0 g/kg) was orally administered daily to the GHS-treated group for 6 weeks, and dermatitis score and total serum IgE level were measured sequentially. Spleen was harvested at 13 weeks of age, and the levels of cytokines released from splenocytes (interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4 and IL-5) and IgG1/IgG2a levels in sera were measured by ELISA. Mice treated with GHS showed milder dermatitis than the disease-control group and the increase of total serum IgE level tended to be suppressed by GHS. In addition, GHS treatment suppressed the production of IL-4 and IgG1, though it did not affect the production of IFN-γ and IgG2a; i.e., GHS normalized the Th1/Th2 balance. These results suggest that GHS inhibits the development and reduces the severity of AD, at least in this model.
2-Chloroethanol (2-CE) is a commonly used solvent in industry; unfortunately, severe hypotension is one of main toxic signs during intoxication. Calcium ion modulation is considered to be an important role of vasorelaxation. The aim of this study is to evaluate either 2-CE or its main metabolite, chloroacetaldehyde (CAA), possible cause of hypotension, by using isolated rat aortic rings. Results revealed that 2-CE caused a weakly relaxation in the phenylephrine (PE) pre-induced endothelium-intact aortic rings. However, its metabolite, CAA induced vasorelaxation and showed dose dependency in endothelium-intact and -denuded aortic rings. The half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2-CE exceeded 50 mM; meanwhile, the IC50 values of CAA in the endothelium-intact and -denuded aortic rings were 3.3 and 2.7 mM, respectively. The CAA-induced relaxation could be significantly attenuated by adding calcium (CaCl2) and various Ca2+ channel blockers, dantrolene, nifedipine, and NiCl2. Nifedipine presents the most strong inhibition effect among the calcium blockers. In conclusion, it is suggested that the hypotension effect of 2-CE intoxicated cases may be mainly mediated by its metabolite CAA, and calcium channels are partially involved inducing the vasorelaxation.
We investigated the effects of explosive acoustic trauma on sleep quality and quality of lives (QOLs) of the workers in Ammunition Factory. Forty-one male workers exposed to explosive acoustic trauma in Ammunition Factory 12 years ago constructed the study group (Group 1). Thirty-eight male workers of Ammunition Factory who were not exposed to the explosion, were included into the control group (Group 2). We used the Mini Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ) and SF-36 questionnaire. In workers of the study group who had experienced psychological and sleep problems; hearing loss and acute tinnitus just after explosion; and had higher education levels, some of the sleep and QOL parameters got worse. Workers, adjacent to the explosion site and not used earpluggs during explosion, had more impaired sleep quality results (p<0.05). We may conclude that acute explosive acoustic trauma may affect negatively some items of sleep quality and quality of the lives of the workers. Workers should be educated to use ear muffs and ear plugs. For post-explosion sleep problems and other psychological problems, psychological support should be given to the workers by the health-team and their families.
Pharmacokinetics and absorption profiles of coenzymeQ10(CoQ10) from three different oral formulations were evaluated in rats. For the intravenous concentration-time data, a two-compartment open model fitted well. There were no significant changes in the values of the elimination rate constant at the terminal phase, and the half-life of CoQ10 was estimated to be 7 to 8 hr. The values of intravenous area under the plasma concentration-time curve up to infinity (AUC∞) increased with a rise in CoQ10 dose (0.025 to 2.5 mg/kg); however, the AUC∞ showed a nonlinear relationship with the administered dose. The total body clearance (CLtot) increased with a rise in the intravenous dose of CoQ10. The value of CLtot increased in proportion to the intravenous dose. Three different formulations of CoQ10 [olive oil solution (control), sub-nanosize particles and D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)-emulsion] were tested in rats. An appropriate compartment model wasn't adapted to the concentration-time data from orally administered CoQ10 formulations because plasma concentrations of CoQ10 from 10 to 24 hr after administration were markedly increased for all formulations tested. The TPGS-emulsion showed a significantly higher AUC0-24 value and absorption rate (Fa) than the other formulations (AUC0-24, 18876±6225 ng·h/ml; Fa, 0.15%). There was no difference in the values of AUC0-24 and Fa between the control and subnano-particle formulations. After intraloop administration of CoQ10 in the olive oil formulation, there were no significant differences in the plasma concentration of CoQ10, and the residual amounts of CoQ10 in the different parts of the intestinal loop (upper jejunum, lower jejunum, ileum) at the end of experiment were almost the same. These observations indicate that the pharmacokinetics of CoQ10 are nonlinear, and suggest the existence of a deep compartment for CoQ10 accumulation in the intestine. Absorption of CoQ10 from the intestine was very poor; however, a higher plasma concentration of CoQ10 was achieved by an emulsion formulation using TPGS.
The concentrations of chlorate and perchlorate were examined by ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (IC-MS-MS) in 106 bottled beverages purchased or obtained mainly in the Tokyo area to estimate exposure to these chemicals attributable to bottled beverages. The bottled beverages were classified into 5 categories: water from the water supply (n=5), natural water (n=49), bottled water (n=10), tea (n=25), and soft drinks (n=17). Chlorate was detected in 85 bottled beverages (highest concentration, 700 μg/l), including all of the samples of bottled water from the water supply at levels ranging from 25 to 120 μg/l. Perchlorate was detected above the minimum reporting limit (i.e., 0.05 μg/l) from 62 bottled beverages, with the highest concentration of 0.92 μg/l. As the average consumption of bottled beverages calculated from market statistics is approximately 400 ml/day per person, it seems important to take the amounts of chlorate and perchlorate ingested from bottled beverages into consideration for estimation of total intake of these chemicals.
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of restraint stress and inflammation on levels of serum zinc and corticosterone in metallothionein-null (MT-/-) mice with respect to a modulating role of MT in stress responses. In wild-type (MT+/+) mice, serum zinc concentration decreased after injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but increased with exposure to restraint. In LPS-treated mice, serum zinc levels were higher in MT-/- mice than in MT+/+ mice. On the other hand, after exposure to restraint stress, serum corticosterone levels increased in both mice, but the increase rate was higher in MT+/+ mice than in MT-/- mice. In addition, injection of LPS decreased serum corticosterone in MT+/+ mice, but there was no change in MT-/- mice. These findings suggest that MT may modify the zinc metabolism and stress responses in inflammatory and restraint stress.
p-Hydroxybenzoate esters (parabens), which are often used in cosmetics as preservatives, have been reported to have estrogenic and anti-androgenic effects and to cause contact dermatitis. In this paper, we evaluate the effects of parabens on contact hypersensitivity, an allergic response to low molecular weight chemicals that causes contact dermatitis. Female BALB/c mice were administered 1200 mg/kg of butylparaben and sensitized by painting 3% 4-ethoxymethylene-2-phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one (OXA) on their backs. Seven days later, the mice were challenged by painting 1% OXA on the ear and the ear thickness was measured. Ear auricles were excised and the RNA expressions of interleukin (IL)-18 and interferon (IFN)-γ were evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Butylparaben enhanced ear swelling at 6 hr after the elicitation of allergy. Butylparaben at a dosage of 600 mg/kg was sufficient to aggravate contact hypersensitivity. Among the six parabens examined, butylparaben exerted the strongest allergy-enhancing activity. Butylparaben also enhanced the RNA expression of IL-18 before the challenge with OXA and the RNA expression of IFN-γ at 6 hr after the challenge. These results suggest that parabens could enhance IL-18 and IFN-γ expression and exacerbate mouse contact hypersensitivity to OXA.
3,6-Dinitrobenzo[e]pyrene (3,6-DNBeP) is an extremely strong bacterial mutagen, and was recently identified in highly mutagenic surface soil samples. In a previous study, a sensitive analytical method was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fluorescence detection. In this study, we analyzed 3,6-DNBeP in surface soil, airborne particles, diesel particles, and incinerator dusts using this analytical method to reveal the distribution of 3,6-DNBeP in the environment. 3,6-DNBeP was detected in all surface soil samples, and the mutagenic contribution ratio of 3,6-DNBeP to the mutagenicity of the soil extracts toward Salmonella (S.) typhimurium TA98 was 17.3% on average. A positive correlation was observed between the mutagenicity of surface soil and the amount of 3,6-DNBeP (r=0.8653). 3,6-DNBeP was detected in airborne particles in the range of 19-76 fg/m3. The particle-size-distribution ratios of 3,6-DNBeP in <1.1, 1.1-2.0, 2.0-3.3, 3.3-7, and >7 μm of airborne particles were 13.1%, 13.8%, 37.0%, 19.1%, and 17.0%, respectively. 3,6-DNBeP was detected in diesel particles from general automobiles and industrial forklifts, and incinerator dusts. These results suggested that 3,6-DNBeP was a major mutagen in surface soil, and diesel engines and incinerators were possible sources of 3,6-DNBeP distributed in surface soil and air. This is the first report on the detection of 3,6-DNBeP in diesel particles and incinerator dusts.
In a previous study, it was suggested that β-cyclocitral plays an important role in understanding the lysis of cyanobacteria under natural conditions. The present study was conducted in order to understand how the β-cyclocitral lyses cyanobacterial cells, and other anticyanobacterial agents were also investigated. The preliminary study using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) demonstrated that there were three types of morphological changes in the cyanobacterial cells when they were incubated with anticyanobacterial agents: volatile compounds from cyanobacteria cause shrinking and then wrinkling; terpenoids contact directly and cause stripping; basic amino acids cause swelling and then collapsing. In order to clarify the extreme difference in the damage during the morphological changes between the β-cyclocitral and L-lysine(Lys), the transmission electron microscope (TEM) technique was applied. Although a definite difference in the morphological damage was observed, a plausible mechanism for β-cyclocitral could be not deduced. Throughout the experiments using antibiotics, it was found that the apparent morphological changes after lysis did not always correspond to the mode of action.
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a family of invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases. This group includes scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. These diseases are characterized by the accumulation of the abnormal isoform prion protein (PrPSc), which is a misfolded version of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) and is resistant to enzymatic degradation. Numerous compounds have been reported to inhibit prion replication and PrPSc accumulation in cell cultures. Among them, we selected 2,2'-biquinoline (BQ) and studied the mechanism of its anti-prion disease activity. Its effect on prion protein (PrP) expression was examined in mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells and in prion-infected N2a (ScN2a) cells, using proteinase K (PK) treatment to discriminate between PrPC and PrPSc. We found that BQ time dependently decreased the total amount of PrP and PrP mRNA expression in infected N2a cells, but not uninfected N2a cells. Our results indicate that the inhibition of PrPSc production by BQ was due to a decrease in the total amount of PrP.
Drugs are sophisticated intellectual products that have been evolving and specializing. For the efficient use of a drug, while enhancement of pre-marketing review is important, post-marketing monitoring is also essential, since it has been demonstrated that pre-marketing data provide only a limited understanding of the risks involved in the use of drugs. From the perspective of identifying concerns for future pharmacovigilance in Japan, safety measures for recent Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) are compared between Japan and the United States of America (U.S.A.) and are classified into the following three main categories: category one for cases in which ADR problems have not become apparent due to “drug lag” in Japan, category two for cases in which Japanese idiosyncrasies have become apparent, and category three for adverse events for which assessment of the causal relationship is difficult. Particularly, category one and category two are peculiar to Japan, and category three is also on the increase in Western countries. Regarding trends in international pharmacovigilance, the results of analysis of trends in safety measures indicated that there is an active movement, mainly in Japan and Western countries, for adoption of the Data Mining method using the databases of ADR reports (spontaneous reports) submitted by medical institutions or companies, and epidemiological studies have been conducted to improve assessment of risk, to facilitate development of a more active safety-monitoring system. In conclusion, as simultaneous, global developments and approvals have been realized in Japan, safety measures should also be implemented simultaneously, efficiently, quickly, and accurately with internationally harmonized approaches in the future.
Several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs/NPAHs) such as benzo[a]pyrene and 1-nitropyrene are mutagens and/or carcinogens. These compounds secondarily generate PAH hydroxides, ketones, and quinones through atmospheric and metabolic reactions. The health effects of these compounds is now an important social concern. For example, lung cancer, bronchitis, whistling and so on. In this work, we evaluated toxicities of 25 PAH derivatives (hydroxides, ketones and quinones) in terms of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) binding and thyroid hormone-related endpoints using three in vitro bioassays: dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX), thyroid receptor β chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (TRβ-CALUX), and competitive human transthyretin-binding (TTR-binding) assays. Eleven of the 25 PAH derivatives had AhR agonist activity, six had AhR antagonist activity and seven had TR-potentiation activity in the TR-CALUX. Furthermore, PAH quinones and hydroxides had strong TTR-binding activity. 3,4-Dihydrobenz[a]anthracen-1(2H)-one had the strongest agonist activity (EC20: 0.4μM) as determined by DR-CALUX. PAH ketones showed stronger activity than the control and significant difference by statistical analysis. Benzo[c]phenanthrene-[1,4]-quinone was the most TTR-active compound (IC50: 2.5μM). Both PAH ketones and quinones, which have functional groups with low polarity, had significant activities in all tested assays. These in vitro results suggest that PAH derivatives might have various toxic activities in animals. For estimating the health effects and accessing the environmental risks of PAHs, further studies on the toxicity mechanisms are necessary.
The purpose of this study was: to validate metabolic equivalents (METs)·hr/week by comparing with maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) as a measure of physical activities, to examine the relationships between METs·hr/week, VO2max, and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors according to the goals of METs·hr/week and VO2max in ml·kg-1·min-1 for health promotion set in the Exercise Guide 2006, and to examine which is more related with CHD risk factors: METs·hr/week or VO2max in ml·kg-1·min-1? Subjects were 116 collegiate women. MET intensities were assigned to each specific activity. VO2max was estimated with a bicycle ergometer. METs·hr/week was significantly correlated (r=0.514, p<0.01) with VO2max in ml·kg-1·min-1. After adjusting appropriate confounding factors in the forward stepwise multiple regression analyses, METs·hr/week was significantly positively related with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), while the estimated VO2max in ml·kg-1·min-1 was significantly positively related with HDL-C and total cholesterol (TC) and negatively related with log systolic blood pressure (SBP). After adjusting for body mass index (BMI) in the analysis of covariance, the highest category of METs·hr/week (≥23) had significantly higher HDL-C than other lower categories. The highest category of VO2max (≥33ml·kg-1·min-1) had significantly higher HDL-C and TC and lower SBP than the lowest category. In conclusion, METs·hr/week was valid measures for quantifying physical activity, and the goals of METs·hr/week and VO2max in ml·kg-1·min-1 set in the Exercise Guide 2006 were valid. VO2max in ml·kg-1·min-1 was related to greater number of CHD risk factors than METs·hr/week in young women.
In the present study, pummelo peel pretreated with sodium hydroxide is used for adsorption of methylene blue (MB). In order to investigate the effects of pretreatment on the cationic dye adsorption, the kinetics and capacities of raw pummelo peel (RPP) and sodium hydroxide treated pummelo peel (TPP) to remove MB from aqueous solutions were compared. The effects of various experimental parameters (e.g., initial pH, dye concentration, contact time) were also studied. According to the maximum adsorption capacity (qm) obtained, adsorption capability of pummelo peel is significantly increased after sodium hydroxide treatment. Both adsorption isotherms of RPP and sodium hydroxide TPP fitted the Langmuir model well, but not the Freundlich model. The processes of uptake followed pseudo-first order rate kinetics. The results in this study indicated that sodium hydroxide TPP is a promising adsorbent for removing MB from aqueous solution.
Two pure cultures (strains No. A-11 and A-12) from soil sample capable of utilizing aniline as the sole source of nitrogen and energy were regarded as Achromobacter sp and Pseudomonas sp, respectively. Degradation patterns of aniline and aniline derivatives were observed on the high-performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC) of the culture filtrate of both strains and growth of both strains were measured as protein by the Kennedy and Fewson method. The growth yield of both strains were about 46.3g and 47.4g of protein per mole of nitrogen source of aniline and were similar to those in the case of NH4Cl as a nitrogen source. Biodegradation of aniline was achieved (200 mg/l) in less than 3 and 4 days using strains No. A-11 and strain No. A-12, respectively. The strain No. A-11 degraded aniline more rapidly than strain No. A-12.
A simple and efficient procedure for the chlorination of para-hydroxybenzoate esters (parabens) with sulfuryl chloride is described. Fourteen monochlorinated or dichlorinated parabens were synthesized and their mass spectrometric characteristics were determined. This work enabled the definitive identification and quantification of the chlorinated parabens in environmental samples.
Methionine (Met) residues of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8) are easily oxidized to produce Met sulfoxide and/or sulfone of CCK8. In order to investigate the effect of modification at Met of CCK8 for its CCKB receptor, we evaluated the binding affinity of 4 oxidized forms of CCK8 for CCKB receptor expressed in the plasma membrane of LoVo cells, by performing a flow cytometry-based competitive binding assay using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled CCK8. Oxidative modification of CCK8 at 28Met and 31Met caused to increase its binding affinity. The affinity of 31Met sulfone CCK8 was strongest and was significantly higher (by 20-30%) than that of native CCK8 (p<0.05). In contrast, the binding affinity of modified CCK8 was attenuated on replacing 31Met with 31Leu, 31Lys, or 31His.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of different fruit extracts of Sida tiagii Bhandari (Family: Malvaceae), popularly known as Kharinti, on depressive behaviors in mice using forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Extracts were prepared by partitioning of 90% alcoholic extract with n-hexane (HS) and ethyl acetate (EAS) successively and were administered orally for 20 successive days to separate groups of Swiss young male albino mice. HS showed a dose dependent effect on immobility period while residual ethanolic extract (RES) showed the most potent antidepressant effect at all three doses. Chronic administration of EAS showed a variable effect (ineffective in TST while reversal in FST) at 200 and 500 mg/kg doses. RES significantly reduced the immobility times of mice in both FST and TST, without any significant effect on locomotive activity at all doses (100, 200, 500 mg/kg). The efficacy of RES was found to be comparable to that of imipramine (15 mg/kg p.o.) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg p.o.). Sulpiride (50 mg/kg i.p.; a selective D2-receptor antagonist), baclofen [10 mg/kg, i.p., a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAB) agonist] and prazosin (62.5 mg/kg i.p.; an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) significantly attenuated the extract (RES) induced antidepressant-like effect in TST. The monoamine oxidase inhibiting effect and lipid peroxidation inhibiting effect of Sida tiagii (S. tiagii) may contribute favorably to the antidepressant-like activity. Thus, it is concluded that S. tiagii extract may possess an antidepressant-like effect.
The removal performance of free chlorine and combined chlorine by bamboo charcoals carbonized at 400°C (BC400), 700°C (BC700) and 1000°C (BC1000) and commercial activated carbon (AC) was examined. The removal performance of the free chlorine tended to increase with an increase in the total pore volume and the Brunauer Emmett and Teller (BET) surface area. However, the removal of the free chlorine was found to be related not only to the BET surface area and the total pore volume of the porous carbon, but also to the pH of the test solution. The removal performance of the combined chlorine by AC was the highest for all the porous carbons, and that by BC400 was the highest in the bamboo charcoal, opposite that of the removal performance of the free chlorine. The combined chlorine removal performance by BC1000 was greater than that by BC700. Although it is thought that a porous carbon having large surface area is effective for the removal of combined chlorine, the removal performance by BC400 with the smallest surface area was greater than that by BC700 and BC1000. The solution pH rather than the BET surface area and the total pore volume influenced the removal performance of the combined chlorine. Consequently, the removal performance of the free chlorine and combined chlorine by the porous carbon was effective under acidic conditions.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder whereby the immune system's components act upon our body's self-antigens. The pathogenesis is mainly due to the hyperactivity of T helper cells and B lymphocytes, as well as an abnormal apoptosis pathway. SLE has been linked to several genes, including the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), as it is primarily involved in the stimulation of B cells proliferation and differentiation, as well as costimulation of T cell activation, together with activation of natural killer (NK) cells. This study aims to examine the distribution pattern and association of IL-1β single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with SLE. A total of 100 SLE patients and 100 matched normal healthy controls were sampled. The analysis of IL-1β -511 C/T and +3954 E1/E2 SNPs were carried out via polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs). A significant association was observed between the IL-1β -511 C/T polymorphisms and the Malaysian SLE samples (p<0.05), with the C allele showing a higher risk to SLE compared to the T allele. The IL-1β +3954 E1/E2 polymorphisms were also significant to SLE (p<0.05), with the E1 allele exhibiting a relatively higher disease penetration compared to the E2 allele. Both SNPs analysed were found to be significantly corelated with Malaysian SLE samples.