Traité Élementaire de Physique (depuis 1851)et Cours de Physique (depuis 1858) écrits par Adolphe Ganot (1804-1887) ont été diffusés aux plusieurs pays,le Japon inclusivement, soit directement par les éditions frangaises, soit par l'intermédiaire des traductions néerlandaise, anglaise etc., quelques-unes desquelles sont conservées dans la Collection Ancienne de l'École Agricole de Sapporo de la Bibliotheque de l'Université du Hokkaīdo. Selon les résultats d'examen sur ces livres et les renseignements biblio-graphique, sont exposés ici les états de réception et d'utilisation de ces ouvrages célèbres au Japon ainsi que les influences caractéristiques que ceux ont données sur l'introduction de la physique à ce pays.
The basic problems of this paper are as follows. Why did Roger Bacon attach importance to mathematics in relation with natural sciences and didn't Thomas Aquinas do so? Why did Bacon advocate the original idea of Scientia Experimentalis and didn't Thomas do so?
Bacon's praise of mathematics is due to his presupposition of multiplicatio specierum about general actions in the natural world. Because Thomas didn't have such presupposition and moreover made a rigid distinction between mathematics and natural sciences, that is sciences of natura, Thomas didn't attach importance to mathematics for natural sciences. On the other hand, because of this rigid distinction, Thomas' view to mathematics presents even certain modernity where mathematics is regarded as a free hypothetico-deductiva system according to imagination. Bacon couldn't regard mathematics as a hypothetical system, because mathematics of him was linking with structures of existence.
Bacon's idea of Scientia Experimentalis containing the idea of "verification" was possible only upon Bacon's more mediaeval conception of "experience", and the idea of "verification" like Bacon was impossible upon Thomas' more modern conception of "experience". Verification of Bacon is certificatio of conclusion by experience, and it means real proof by noble experience which directly proves truth, and doesn't mean test as procedure. Such idea of verification wasn't able to occur to Thomas upon Thomas' conception of experience as sources of science. Therfore also here the situation is paradoxical, and Bacon's idea of verification doesn't have but superficial modernity.
Finally criticism on Crombie's view is added.
We studied Problems of the Pierced Object in the Old Japanese Mathematics and we took statistics on these problems in mathematical Tablets.
The investigation revealed the fact that many problems were studied during the Bunsei （1818〜1830), especially in and around Edo. And after that period they spread in the country.
The main objects of this paper are to give the analysis of the above-mentioned investigation, especially to make the history of mathematical solution clear in these problems.
In our previous paper we have an invariable among the bends of the touching circles, and to show that the extension⁽¹⁰¹⁾.
Later, we applied Wilkey's Theorem⁽¹⁶⁾ 一 which is an extension of the Decartes Circle Theorem⁽¹⁾一 to this result, we have an interesting theorem⁽¹⁰¹⁾. And we show that a part of this result corresponds to Sir Frederick Soddy's "The Hexlet⁽¹⁴⁾".
The main object of this paper are as follows:
(1) Wasan experts are haven't the notion of bends
(2) Considerations for the concerning literatures.