While the formation of special relativity is usually described as an event in the particle-dynamical tradition, the present study asserts that it really derived from the chemico-thermal origin, in which A.Einstein participated at the start of his scientific career.
Firstly, the student-life of A. Einstein is briefly sketched, discussing how he was studying writings of Helmholtz, Kirchhoff, Hertz and Boltzmann, independently of his university's course, and was considering about the light-velocity within the transparent moving materials.
Nextly, commentary is made of Einstein's each paper up to 1905, in which is made clear how he was studying dissociation, diffusion and fluctuation, both thermodynamically and statistical-thermodynamically, paying much attention to the connection between macroscopic- and microscopic-aspects of matter.
Thirdly, the motivation of his writing of "On the electrodynamics of moving bodies" is presented. It is pointed out that, in his Ph. D dissertation written early in 1905, he estimated viscosity-coefficient of liquid solution, by way of solving the hydrodynamical equation in the coordinate system of the soluteparticle at rest. Then, led by the analogical considerations, in order to estimate radiational friction coefficient of a body moving within the black-body radiation, he needed at that time the electromagnetic equation in the coordinate system of the gas-particle or the suspended small mirror at rest. It is also pointed out that the principle of relativity might have been suggested by the analogy with the Galileian invarince of the hydrodynamical equation, as well as by the energetic considerations on the relative motion of a conductor and a magnet. And, the constancy of light velocity might be the result of that principle applied to the Maxwelfs equation, and might be the extention to include the case of light quantum which does not obey the Maxwell's equation
Lastly, a comment is made about the most important contributions of chemico-thermal origin to Einstein's formation of the special relativity They are :the reinterpretation of length and time as observable physical quantities, and the reconception of time, from absolutely defined mechanical time independent of the coordinate systems, to thermodynamical time. The latter is based on the signal-velocity of light in vacuum, i.e.the speed of dissipation into vacuum of the free energy preserved in the lightsource, and on the motion of needles in the windup-spring watches, which is also a process of dissipation of the free energy stored in the wound springs.
This paper deals w h the later stages of the continuous casting (CC) technology in the steel
industry of Japan, while our previous paper described the history of CC from s introduction to the early stages of commercial implementations. From late 196〇,s, the CC technology had been reinforced by several auxiliary and peripheral techniques. Firstly, nonmetallic inclusions and surface defects were reduced by introduction of large sized tundishes, immersion nozzles, vacuum degassing with argon bubbling, and powder casting. Such reinforcing techniques (RITs) en masse enabled CC (killed) steel slabs to replace rimmed steel ingots for thin sheets, the main product of the integrated steel mills. Another notable RIT, electromagnetic stirring, became available in late 19?〇,s, which remarkably improved metallurgical structure and minimized segregation of elements in CC blooms. This method in concert with the above-mentioned RITs was successfully applied tQ casting of special steel blooms for mechanical use products. Thus the CC technology grew to meet most kinds of steels and, by 1985, to replace ingot casting process almost entirely. Through the history of Co, it is noted that those various RITs were developed in the course of mass production of low grade products. Such situation can be compared to the history of the semiconductor industry where basic advancement of transistor and IC technologies took place in production of popular goods such as portable radios, quartz-oscillator watches and/or pocket calculators.