This paper deals with the historical process of the standardization of the Japanese element names by the Tokyo Kagakukai (the Chemical Society of Tokyo) in the 1880-1900.
A committee for establishment of the Japanese equivalents of Western chemical terms was formed in 1881 under Tokyo Kagakukai (the predecessor of the present Chemical Society of Japan). Up to 1888 the committee members were re-elected several times.
The first proposal of the Japanese nomenclature of elements by the committee was published in the journal of Tokyo Kagakukai-shi in 1886. The second proposal was published in the book of Kagaku Yakugoshu in 1891. The third proposal was published in the book of Kagaku Goi in 1900 under the newly organized
Placing all of the element names contained in the 1886 and 1891 proposals into four categories, we found ；(1)katakana transliterations from English; (2) katakana transliterations from German ; (3) katakana transliterations of words common to English, German and Latin ; and (4) translations of Chinese characters.
If we take notice of the katakana element names, we see that the number of transliterations from English is nearly to that from German. This is the result of the circumstances involving Japanese chemists at that time, when there were both an Anglo-American school and a German school, so that both English and German element names were considered in the course of the determination of element names.
On the other hand, looking at the katakana element names in the 1900 proposal, German is prior to English in the group of words where the English element names differ from the German element names.
In the case of katakana transliterated element names, the use of German element names was adopted as a standard. The field of science in Japan became under the strong German influence at that time.
The technology on mechanical balancing of rotors, one of the most important procedures in manufacturing rotating machinery to guarantee the smooth running machine free from vibration, is reviewed and compiled historically from its origin to today. Technical achievements together with technological contributions dedicated by prominent pioneers are also presented. It is stressed here that the balancing technology has obtained its progress by parallel development of machine dynamics and engineering metrology. Here we can see a characteristic feature of modern technology, to which development of the relevant field of engineering science plays an important role. As the brilliance of the "new" technology fades out, that technology metamorphoses itself into "common" or "ordinal" one, as is the life cycle of "new technology".
Among the problems of classical theory of probability, it is problem of the duration that is one of the most difficult problems to solve. Many distinguished mathematicians have grappled with this problem. I.Todhunter detailed the history of this problem in his book, A history of the mathematical theory of probability from the time of Pascal to that of Laplace, But, here is an excellent author that the erudite Todhunter does not discuss with respect to this problem. Andi・ Marie Ampere today is well known as a phisician. The misunderstanding that the name Ampere is not connected with the problem of the duration of play may be that Todhunter does not refer to his study. I examined the contribution of Ampgre to this problem in this article.
In his letter to Guidobardo Del Monte in 1602, Galileo Galilei claims that he derives the law of conjugate chords, Prop. 36 in Two New Sciences III. M. Yoshinaka, W. L. Wisan and S. Ito suggest that Galileo obtains the law of conjugate chords from the mean proportional theorem just like in Two New Sciences. In this paper it is shown that the law of conjugate chords can be derived from the theorem of De Motu. The historical significance of the laws of chords and conjugate chords is discussed and it is maintained that these laws are the link that joined old Aristotelian to new Newtonian dynamics.