In 1770's Maeno Ryotaku, one of the pioneers introducing Western science into Tokugawa Japan, wrote a couple of notes entitled by Honyaku Undoho (Parallelogram of Forces) and Sokuyogi Zusetsu (Planetarium). The former concerns with the method to compose as many as four forces into a single force. The latter is illustration of the apparatus to demonstrate elliptic motion of the planets. The present paper is to clarify that the couple of notes are Japanese translations of such and such passages of Desaguliers' de natuurkunde uit ondervindingen, a Dutch book. Main figures of the notes are copies or modifications of the corresponding figures in the Dutch book. Detailed comparison of Maeno's notes with the Dutch book allows us to learn to what extent Maeno understood western physics. In 1914/1915, the editor of Nieuw Archief voor Wiskunde (a Dutch mathematical journal) inferred that no book other than the Desaguliers' book could be the original. However, he failed to show which passages and figures of the original had been transcribed into the couple of notes. In particular, he did not discuss any on Sokuyogi Zusetsu. The present paper removes imcompleteness of the prior investigation.
The author discusses the relation between material technology and technology development. As a case study, The author selects steam boiler because the influence of material is especially remarkable and the development process has been clear. The low-pressure steam engine's boiler Materials had changed from copper to Wrought iron. This change hadn't necessarily taken place technological merits. This had taken place cost and ease of acquisition. When development of High-pressure steam engine began in 1800, Cylindrical Boiler was developed so that the boiler could deal with High-pressure steam safety and could have more heating surface. However, it was difficult for steam boilers to resist high-pressure steam at 19th century. Many Engineers required the material to have high tensile strength and corrosion resistance so that they might prevent steam-boiler explosions. Thus, Material Technology is important for development of steam boiler. Nevertheless, few studied how about material developments influenced developments of steam boiler. William Fairbairn, Daniel Adamson, and Henry Bessemer made a great contribution to the improvement of Steam Pressure-resistant in boilers. The author shows as follow, Firstly new material didn't have to substitute old one because it's impossible to make new materials into the form to work very well. Secondary the changing of boiler type is major; the change of materials is secondary. One boiler types gradually was improved the material technology. However, the change of types of boilers occurred when one type couldn't satisfy the demand in power and thermal efficiency. Thirdly, it's important for the development of one steam boiler, that it changed the material technology. But at all, we also found another tending, it was neglected till now. Because one specific works restricted machines and mechanism early in steam boiler development. For this reason, the factor of materials is most important, but materials problem was solved lately.
Mei Wending (1633-1721) is recognized as one of the most influential mathematicians and astronomers of eighteen-century China. While propagandizing Christianity, Jesuit missionaries introduced Western scientific knowledge to 17^ <th> century China. Mei Wending's devoted his scholarly life to the integration and assimilation of Western science into traditional Chinese mathematical and scientific know-how. Mei Wending was both a prolific writer and influential scholar in Asia, his works were studied by generations of Chinese as well as Japanese mathematicians of the Wasan-ka school. With the aim of creating a more precise calendar, which was in great demand domestically, Wasan-ka scholars carefully studied his works after they were introduced into Edo Japan in 1726. Many Chinese mathematics and calendar texts have been preserved today in the Momijiyama Bunko Library, established by the the Tokugawa government in 1602. During our survey of 18^ <th> century Chinese texts in the Momijiyama Bunko Library, we unearthed several important texts concerning Mei Wending's works, publications and manuscripts hitherto unknown to Japanese historians of mathematics. Some of the most important are : 1) Li ski quan shu <暦學全書> (Compendium of Calendar) 2) Li suan quan shui <暦算全書> (Compendium of Mathematics and Calendar), 2^ <nd> edition, 1724 3) Ge yuan ba xian zhi biao <割圓八線之表> (Table for the Eight Lines Cutting a Circle) 4) San jia ce liang he ding <三家測量合訂> (Recompile of Textbook on Land Surveying by the Three Great Mathematicians) In this paper, we first summarize the contents of the above mathematical and calendar texts. Second, we discuss how the works were transmitted into Japan and how they were viewed and analyzed by Japanese mathematicians at the time. Finally, we discuss the various ways texts were exported from China and introduced into Japan.