Tei Nishimura planned the Japanese Association for the Advancement of Science in 1888. According to his plan, the association was established through the union of educational, scientific and technological groups. The purpose was to enlighten people on the value of science, promote special research topics, improve the political position of science and scientists, and simplify the dissemination of research outcomes. The model adopted was that of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, although this association had no educational section in the 1880s. Nishimura's plan to unite educational and scientific groups within the association developed from his theory of education, which sought to relate education to science. He hoped for the development of pedagogy, and conducted research on the relationship between education and science. In addition, he thought that the theory of A. Bain was quoted, and that science assisted didactics. He thought that Bain applied psychology, physiology etc. to didactics, and was going to use their scientific method as a practical method. He began the reform of the Educational Society of Japan based on his plan. In 1888, he established a system of consultation with the Ministry of Education, to enable cooperation between science and technological research as well as education, and to conduct research into education.
From 1919 to 1922, Marcel Brillouin published several papers on quantum theory. Some previous studies cited these works as paving the way for Louis de Broglie's matter wave. But few historical studies treated Brillouin's wave concept in his quantum theory in detail. In this paper, we first investigate Brillouin's wave concept, then analyze his motive for his study, and finally examine its influence on L. de Broglie, constrasting the differences between Brillouin's wave concept and L. de Broglie's matter wave.
This paper aims to demonstrate institutional characters of the Board of Longitude for the purpose of examining the relationship between science and polity in the 18th century Britain. In 1714, British parliament established the Longitude Act and appointed Commissioners of the Board who were experts familiar with navigation, astronomy, and geography. Their main role was improving navigational science, especially achieving the practical solution for finding the longitude at sea. The Board as a scientific institution had close relations to two public bodies: the Parliament and Royal Navy. The Parliament financed the Board and rarely intervened into or controlled their activities. Nevertheless, the determinations which parliament made were obviously priority to the Board's, accordingly only through the parliamentary act, its reorganization could be carried out. Several scientific activities of the Board were operated for the service of the Royal Navy : introducing newly invented methods for finding the longitude and navigational instruments, transferring geographical knowledge, and cooperating actively for the voyages of discovery to the Pacific ocean and Arctic. It is well known that until second half of the 19th century, British government seldom patronized scientific activities and organizations. The example of the Board presents that from second half of the 18th century on, however, the state had put huge public money into scientific projects related to navigation, commerce, and exploration.
In 1593-94, a Spanish Jesuit Pedro Gomez (1533-1600) completed his tripartite textbook for use by students preparing for the priesthood at Jesuit colleges in Japan. Its first part, De sphaera (On the Sphere), is well known as the first full-scale presentation of Western cosmology in Japan. However, it has been rarely noted that its third part, Compendium catholicae veritatis (Compendium of Catholic Belief), which treats theology, also contains such technical astronomical data as the dimension of the heavens. Comparison of Compendium's data with those seen in astronomy books in contemporary Europe has shown that some of the numerical values in fact correspond to those of a famous Jesuit mathematician Christoph Clavius (1537-1612), whose influence on De sphaera has already been indicated. This paper, while providing a modern Japanese translation of the related chapter in Compendium, first investigates the derivation of the data and, second, examines whether it influenced similar data seen in Kenkon Bensetsu (A Discussion on the Heavens and the Earth with Critical Commentaries) and its variant copy Tenmon Biyo (Compendium for Astronomy), both composed in the mid 17th century and attributed to the apostate Portuguese Chuan Sawano (Christovao Ferreira, ca.1580-1650).