The purpose of this paper is to analyse the concept of pneuma (ruh) in On Cardiac Drugs, a medical work of Ibn Sina (980-1037). The idea of pneuma, the concept used to explain the physiology of the human body, originated in ancient Greece. Ibn Sina inherited this idea and gave it an important role in his medical theory. In his Canon of Medicine, the Galenic pneuma theory is expounded. In On Cardiac Drugs, by contrast, a property that cannot be explained by Galenic medicine is attributed to pneuma. It is a property of luminosity (nuraniyah), and moreover, luminous pneuma is said to resemble the substance of heaven (jawhar al-sama). This thought is neither found in works of ancient Greek medicine nor in the works of Arabic writers who played a role in introducing Greek medicine to the Arabic world.
This paper examines the influence of the Italian school of river hydraulics in the Eighteenth-Century Dutch Republic. It highlights the Bolognese mathematician Domenico Guglielmini (1655-1710) and the Dutch natural philosopher Willem Jacob's Gravesande (1688-1742) and compares their research activities, focussing on their theoretical works as well as their approaches to the practical problems. Guglielmini formed his theory of open channel in the context of the discussion about the projected improvement of the Po rivers, while's Gravesande adopted it to apply to the problem about the improvement works in the Rhine Delta. In Guglielmini's research, focus is laid on deriving certain formula with which one can determine the discharge of a river by simple calculation. 's Gravesande, on the other hand, relied more on the actual measurement of flow velocity in practice, although his intellectual basis was Guglielmini's theory. This paper will conclude that the essence of what's Gravesande adopted from the Italian school was the concept of flow rate and the measurement method of flow velocity, while he was more cautious in applying simple discharge formulae to real rivers.