In World War II, when Japan was under a scientific blockade, the Ministry of Education provided a science and technology information service, such as summary reports of foreign journals and translations of foreign books. The information service covered a wide area of scientific investigation. Although the Japanese government advocated an emphasis on wartime research at its August 1943 Cabinet meeting, the Ministry of Education continued to expand the information service. Previous studies give no details on how these science-promoting measures were adopted in wartime. This paper, using the Inumaru Records in Japan's National Diet Library, reveals that the information service started and expanded through a loose coalition between scientists and Ministry of Education officials. Inumaru Hideo( 1904-1990) was a Ministry of Education official who took charge of the information service. In August 1942, the Ministry started a summary reports service for German academic journals in response to scientist complaints about the blockade. The Ministry left the choice of journals up to scientists, and the reports service continued to expand until late 1944. In July 1943, the Ministry started a translation project for foreign books, addressing a decline in students' academic ability resulting from a cut in higher-education requirements. In the project, textbooks in various fields translated into Japanese, and the translation project continued after the war.
The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster has revealed the huge potential risk inherent in nuclear power generation. It adds very much to the existing energy problems such as depletion of fuels and global warming. To achieve substantial reduction in both fossil and nuclear energy, not only the enhancement of renewable energy on the supply-side but also the suppression of energy consumption on the demand-side would be required. Low-energy building technology is considered an effective means of energy consumption reduction. EU is the front-runner of this field, in terms of the level of technology, the adequacy of regulation, and the degree of diffusion. This implies that the development of low-energy building technology in Europe is worth historical study. With regard to historiography, we emphasize the complex nature of technological developments. It is not a linear, steady process. It turns and twists. A technological path is a result of aggregation of interactions - either conflicts or collaborations - among a variety of heterogeneous actors. Such complexity and heterogeneity often enrich the quality of technological development, according to the debates on the "resistance to new technologies " and the "unlocking of technological trajectories ". We also indicate some historical lessons such as the role of new entrants, the necessity of nurturing space for innovation, and the importance of sharing the basic concept of the technology among related actors.