This study represents the morphology and measures the size and shape of the sella turcica in Bangladeshi populace and contrast with accessible global information. A sum of 166 (108men and 58 ladies) Bangladeshi subjects who went through Computed tomography (CT) scan at the Radiology Department were taken. A 3D imaging software (Mimics 11.02 Materialise) was utilized to process the CT images. Morphometric strategies were utilized to evaluate size and shape. The parameters for conventional measurements were three dissimilar sella height (anterior, posterior and median), sella length, diameter and width, where all of them deliberated in relation with Frankfort reference line (FH). Total area of sella turcica also considered. No important contrasts in size of the sella were found between sexes. The study found that sella turcica gave three unique shapes which were considered flat (28.3%), ovoid (48.1%) and circle (23.4%). In another morphological classification sella turcica represent 6 different variations. Those were normal sella (69.2%), oblique anterior wall (4.8%), double contour of sella floor (6.6%), sella turcica bridge (0 %), irregularity (notching) in the posterior part of the dorsum sella (16.2%) and pyramidal shape of dorsum sella (3.0%). Sella shape and measurements reported in the present study can be useful in giving reference information in the orthodontic determination, appraisal and treatment arrangement and evaluation of sex dimorphism in Bangladeshi subjects.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ozone therapy in rat femoral fractures. Following the right open femoral fractures and intramedullary Kirschner wire fixation of the fracture in 60 male Wistar albino rats, the animals were divided into two groups of 30 animals each: ozone therapy group (n=30); non-treatment (control) group (n=30). Ozone was administered by rectal insufflation. After the rats were sacrified fracture healing was assessed by biomechanical and histopathologic evaluation. Histological and mechanical findings indicated that the ozone therapy had a significantly positive effect on bone healing.
To examine the pathology of salivary glands that have undergone atrophy or hypofunction due to old age or disease, the duct ligation model is used. This model has been used in studies on the course of glandular parenchyma atrophy and the potential for repair and regeneration. However, the period of ligation was short in most of these studies, and none have examined long-term progress. Therefore, we investigated long-term ligation of the submandibular gland in mice and examined the chronic changes in atrophied salivary glands. The ligation periods were 1, 2 and 3 months, and atrophied salivary glands were resected after each period. Resected glands were examined by histology, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and transmission electron microscopy. Histologically, disappearance of acinar cells and increases in duct-like structures were observed over time in atrophied salivary glands, resulting from long-term submandibular gland main excretory duct ligation. Acinar cell markers (α-amylase, aquaporin 5) showed marked weakness in expression after ligation, but expression was still observed after 3 months of ligation. Stem cell markers (c-kit, Sca-1) showed greater expression at 1 month of ligation, compared with controls, but expression subsequently decreased with time. Expression of the precursor cell marker cytokeratin 5 was retained throughout long-term ligation. Atrophied salivary gland tissue resulting from long-term ligation showed increases in specific duct-like structures over time, and the expression of stem cell markers and progenitor cell markers in the area of these structures suggests that the repair capability remained intact.
A malocclusion is a misalignment or incorrect relation between the teeth of the two dental arches when they approach each other as the jaws close. It has been suggested that masticatory function varies in relation to different malocclusion. Thereby, masticatory muscle can be affected with different malocclusion as masticatory process is related with this. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function of masticatory muscles (masseter and temporalis muscles) in patient with different malocclusion by surface electromyography (sEMG). On masticatory muscle, twenty eight patients (13 male and 15 female) were assessed by using sEMG and the results compared between gender and different malocclusions. Male and female group in left masseter muscle during chewing and right temporalis muscle during clenching. No significant difference (p>0.05) for class I, II and III malocclusion, except right temporalis muscle showed significant difference (p=0.010) on clenching. In conclusion, the function of the masticatory muscles were varies between male and female and different malocclusion of class I, II and III.
Our study aimed to create a rabbit model of rib distraction osteogenesis, for use in treatment of rib defects and research on the process of distraction osteogenesis. Ten rabbits were subjected to unilateral osteotomy and a specific distractor was installed. The distractors were normally designed. Two rabbits died from anesthesia. Eight female rabbits underwent rib osteotomies, and lateral distraction devices were implanted. Three days postoperatively, distraction commenced on one side in each rabbit, by 0.5 mm twice a day for 80 days. Four rabbits each were sacrificed 15 and 30 days later, respectively, and the osteogenic and contralateral ribs were removed for histomorphometric examination. Normal development of distraction osteogenesis was observed, and the structure of newly formed bone was the same as that of other parts of the rib. Histomorphometric and gross tissue appearance of the areas subjected to distraction osteogenesis were the same as the other parts of the rib. We successfully established an animal model of rib distraction and documented the entire process of extension. Rib distraction was performed by 0.5 mm twice a day. Following a fixed period of 30 days, the biological characteristics of the distracted and contralateral normal rib showed no difference. Moreover, the distracted rib had curvature.
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is plasma that contains platelets concentrated by centrifugal separation of a blood specimen. Advances in the practical applications of PRP have enabled regenerative therapies for hard tissue. Blood contains many growth factors. Therefore, to more effectively use PRP in the clinical setting, it is important to evaluate how growth factor levels change after PRP preparation. The objective of the present study was to observe how the concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in PRP change after preparation. PRPs were prepared from 17 healthy consenting male and female subjects aged 25-32 years. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the VEGF and PDGF concentrations at 15, 30, 60, 120 and 1,440 min after PRP preparation. We found that VEGF and PDGF concentrations remained high, and exhibited their highest levels at 24 h after PRP production. This persistence suggests that VEGF and PDGF might remain active in tissue regeneration, even 24 h after PRP is prepared.
The purpose of this study is creation of biomaterials from titanium dioxide (TiO2). This TiO2 has known for photocatalysis and osteogenesis. For the purpose of applying this function to orthodontic brackets and coating materials for implant, the relationship between surface of sintered and cell proliferation were examined. In addition, crystal structure and the surface property of sintering TiO2 were investigated. TiO2 were sintered at 1300°C for use as samples. We examined surface roughness, x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy to make observations of the surface properties and texture. Moreover, mouse osteoblast-like cell line, MC3T3-E1 was cultured on sintered TiO2 in order to evaluate the cell proliferation and ALP. For the samples sintered at 1300°C, the crystalline phase of rutile-type TiO2 was confirmed.5000-fold magnified SEM images of the surface of the unsintered samples, needle-like TiO2 crystals were pressure welded and showed mutual overlap, with pores occurring among the crystals. Sintering at 1300°C produced numerous small pores. Rutile TiO2 as a starting material was sintered at 1300°C and subjected to a cell culture experiment in which MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the sample, followed by viable cell counting and cell morphology observation on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 of culture. In the test of cell proliferation, sintered at 1300°C samples was found to remarkable cell proliferation even after time had passed. ALP activity of cells on 1300°C TiO2 sample, the values were 110% and 126% on days 14 and 28 of culture, respectively. These changes were calculated using polystyrene dish as the reference condition. Thus, TiO2 sintered at 1300°C showed good compatibility and increase in the ALP activity in MC3T3-E1 cells.
As society ages, the maintenance and improvement of the quality of life in elderly people have become essential. The effective intake and bioavailability rate of calcium help prevention of osteoporosis and fracture by fall. The additive assorted feed (HMD) was designed using calcium citrate and calcium phosphate (3.0% calcium concentration) to improve calcium intake in elderly. However, such a high concentration of calcium can lead to adverse effects. This study aimed to elucidate the appropriate calcium concentration for developing an additive formula diet (AFD), by evaluating the improvement in bone structure of ageing rats previously fed with a low nutrient diet. Twenty rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups (n=5). Three groups were fed a low-mineral diet (LMD) for 189 days. At 190 days, these rats were fed either LMD, normal mineral diet (NMD), or AFD for an additional 84 days. The 4th group was fed with NMD for 273 days. The femur of rats was removed at 273 days and the effect of supplements was investigated by changes in the BMD, BMC, and trabecular structure measurements using micro-computer tomography and polarization microscopy. No significant differences were detected with respect to BMD and BMC in LMD+AFD and NMD+NMD. The LMD+AFD group showed significantly better structural values with respect to Tb.N, Tb.sp, and Tb.spac than the LMD+NMD group. The LMD+AFD group showed significantly denser trabecular observations than the LMD+NMD group. This correlated with trabecular separation (Tb.sp) and spacing (Tb.spac), which denote the distance between individual trabecular structures. Supplementation with AFD showed efficient bone formation and inhibited further bone loss as bone density, bone mineral density, and bone structure improved to levels close to that of healthy bones. In this study, a 1.0% concentration of calcium improved the bone structure safely.
Amelogenin is one of the enamel matrices secreted by ameloblasts and is known to have at least 15 alternative mRNA splicing isoforms. The leucine rich amelogenin peptide (LRAP) is one of most abundant amelogenin isoforms and numerous studies have shown that amelogenin peptides including LRAP, are expressed in cartilage and bone. Lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) has been identified as amelogenin binding partner, however, the mechanism of action for LRAP in chondrogenesis or osteogenesis is still unclear. This study aimed to assay the effect of chemically synthesized LRAP (csLRAP) on chondrogenic or osteogenic differentiation with the involvement of LAMP-1. The csLRAP used in this study was generated by F-moc solid phase chemistry based on the mouse LRAP amino acid sequence and was added to the culture medium of the chondrogenic cells, ATDC5 and the osteoblast cells, MC3T3-E1. Both chondrogenic and osteoblast cells, in which an immunopositive reaction to LAMP-1 antibody was observed by immunocytochemistry, showed significant suppression in cell number in the presence of csLRAP at 10 μg/ml compared to that in control, but this effect was rescued in the presence of LAMP-1 antibody. On the other hand, the intensity of alcian blue staining in chondrogenic cells and alizarin red staining in osteoblast cells was significantly increased in the presence of csLRAP at a dose of 10 μg/ml after 4 weeks culture, and this effect was suppressed in the presence LAMP-1 antibody. Moreover, the chondrogenic or osteogenic differentiation marker genes including Sox9, Type II Collagen, Type X Collagen, Runx2, Alkaline Phosphatase, and Type I Collagen, were upregulated in the presence of csLRAP after one week of culture and were suppressed in the presence of LAMP-1 antibody. These results suggest that csLRAP could promote osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation in vitro, and that LAMP-1 may be involved in the differentiation and proliferation of these cells.
Dental implant therapy has been established as an excellent therapeutic method for the recovery of masticatory function. However, no reports to date have undertaken detailed analyses of jaw bone quality using bone biopsy despite the large impact that jaw bone quality at the implant placement sites has on the prognosis of implant therapy. This study histologically examined jaw bone quality at implant placement sites using nondecalcified frozen sections. We also compared bone quality with attenuation (measured in Hounsfield units (HU)) on computed tomography (CT). Bone quality was highest around the anterior mandibular (67.25%), followed by the anterior maxillary (60.23%), mandibular molars (55.14%) and maxillary molars (44.81%). No statistical correlation with CT attenuation was evident (mean, 540.91 HU). These results suggested that consideration needs to be given to histological diagnosis as well as CT attenuation in clinical evaluations of bone where implant bodies should be placed.
In this study, to observe the influence of Additive Formula Diet (AFD) ingestion in ovariectomized rats (OVX), OVX were fed a normal mineral diet (NMD) or AFD, and structures of the outer and inner regions of the cross-section of the central region of the femoral diaphysis and changes in crystalline bone quality were investigated by polarized light microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. For experimental animals, 8 rats ovariectomized at 20 weeks old were used. OVX were divided into 2 groups: NMD-fed ONMD group and AFD-fed OAFD group, and the femur was excised 24 weeks after intervention. On polarized light microscopy, the external basic lamella was thicker in the OAFD than ONMD group, showing higher-order colors. On Raman spectroscopy, the degree of calcification and crystallinity in the inner region tended to slightly higher in the OAFD than ONMD group, although crystallinity tended to slightly lower. Ingestion of AFD may have improved bone metabolism throughout the body, and improvement of the femoral mineral levels and collagen cross linkages may have more markedly improved bone quality compared with that by NMD ingestion, suggesting its usefulness for treatment of osteoporosis, bone healing after tooth extraction, and early bone formation after implant placement.
Marsupials were mammals whose young were born in an undeveloped stage and attached to the mother’s nipples, usually in a pouch. Despite, these jaw elements to suckle and digestive system must develop early. Previously we have reported that the morphology of the salivary glands in the gray short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica). This opossum, a kind of marsupial, has three large salivary glands which include the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. Parotid glands consist only of serous acinar cells. Submandibular and sublingual glands consist of seromucous secretory end pieces and the submandibular and sublingual glands were mixed glands. This study was purpose to investigate the localization of cytokeratin19 (CK19), aquaporin5 (AQP5) and alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA) in the gray short-tailed opossum parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. These proteins localization was determined by immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections. Submandibular and sublingual glands showed a broadly similar staining pattern. CK19 was localized to the acinar cells and ductal cells in three major salivary glands. AQP5 was expressed in the luminal only of serous cells. Alpha-SMA was observed around the secretory end pieces. These results are thought to reflect the characteristic of the opossum salivary glands. Further studies are required to unravel obscure matters with cell differentiation and physiological functions of salivary glands among the mammals.
The aim of this study was to show the reaction varieties of human tooth enamel and dentin with a carbonated soft drink, Sprite. After one week exposing into the soft drink, the sliced tooth specimens were examined by macroscopic and microscopic and then carried out the micro X-ray diffraction analysis using a 100 μm diameter X-ray beam. The macroscopic and microscopic results showed the wide varieties from the one showing a very slight increase white-spot areas in the enamel to the another showing almost complete decay of the enamel. The crystallites in the examined enamel and dentin changed drastically as follows; the one enamel sample showed the decrease of crystal amount and some ionic substitutions, and the another dentin sample showed the increase in crystallinity and ionic substitutions. These results clearly showed that the original tooth enamel and dentin had their own crystallographic properties differing from each others. This study provided a crystallographic basic data which will be applied to a tayler-made individual preventive dentistry in near future.
Distraction osteogenesis (DO) has gained acceptance for treating cleft-related deformities involving severe maxillary hypoplasia. Modern computer-assisted surgery (CAS) has progressed rapidly and has been incorporated into oral-maxillofacial surgery. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the long-term skeletal stability of the maxilla repositioned using DO with CAS in patients with cleft-related midfacial hypoplasia. Three female patients (mean age, 21.0 years) requiring a mean maxillary advancement with DO of 11.0 (range, 10-12) mm were included. Based on preoperative computed tomography data, virtual reality surgical planning for maxillary DO with selection of the actual distractor components was done using three-dimensional rapid prototyping models. Surgery entailed a Le Fort I osteotomy and application of semi-custom-made intraoral distraction devices. DO was activated after a 5-day latency period at a rate of 1 mm/day until the appropriate amount of distraction was obtained. After a 4-week retention period, rigid internal fixation and distractor removal were performed (T1). Lateral cephalometric films taken before DO (T0), at T1, 6 months after T1 (T2), and 3 years after T1 (T3) were analyzed. Maxillary point A in the Frankfort horizontal reference plane was used to assess skeletal changes in the maxillary position (x, y) at each time point (T1–T3). In all 3 patients, maxillary DO was safe and CAS with preoperative virtual image-guided simulation was feasible in terms of dental and skeletal relationships and facial profile, with a mean change at maxillary point A of 10.7 mm (7.0 mm horizontally, 8.1 mm inferiorly). Point A showed a moderate amount of skeletal relapse by T2 (1.0 mm, 13.8%, horizontally; 1.3 mm, 16.5%, superiorly; P < 0.05), with a small amount of further relapse at T3 (P > 0.05). DO with CAS can achieve long-term skeletal stability and is a promising minimally invasive bone regenerative treatment for cleft-related midfacial hypoplasia.
Demineralization procedure of dentin and bone is well known to reduce the antigenicity and immunogenicity of allogenic dentin matrix as well as promote inactivation of transmissible viral disease. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of allogenic, demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) for alveolar bone repair. Clinical findings indicate that the healing process may be as effective as that observed with autogenous DDM. From 2013 to 2016, eighteen patients who underwent socket preservation with allogenic DDM were selected for evaluation of early complications at the surgical stage and for histological evaluation during a secondary surgical procedure at the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital and Seoul In Dental Clinic. They were monitored during the initial 7 to 10 postoperative days for observing the related immune responses. Like with autogenous DDM, no remarkable early and late complications were observed to result with the use of allogenic DDM. Additionally, the effect of bone regeneration was very similar to that found with autogenous DDM. Within the limitations of this study, the clinical results of allogenic DDM were similar to those of autogenous DDM.
Applying a laboratory used X-ray micro-diffraction technique to analysis of human bone mineral, the variation of crystallite size in a small bone mass was clarified. The mandible cortical small masses were taken off by a bone trephine bar. The micro-XRD patterns showed the broaden peaks, but the full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of the 002 diffraction peak could be obtained. There were three characteristics on the FWHM values obtained in this study. First, the values showed a wide deviation range from 0.44 to 0.66 (2θ°), indicating the crystallite length of 12.4 nm to 18.5 nm. Second, such a small FWHM value, 0.44, was not reported previously. And third, the variation of FWHM value was observed in the closely neighboring regions within one small bone mass separated within 1 mm only. These results suggested that the crystallites in bone may vary in size from to parts due to bone remodeling and histological textures.