This paper surveys research which investigated how imagery abilities measured by subjective imagery tests predicted cognitive tasks or situations in the areas of physiology, perception, learning/memory, recall, thinking, and social processes, and summarizes findings and makes comments in each area or theme. As a result, the main focus is on areas of perception and learning/memory. Positive relationships with imagery tests are abundantly revealed, and we can see situations where findings supporting the predictive effects of the tests have been considerably accumulated. Although vividness has been treated in many researches, controllability, preference（imagery type） and absorption have been also approached, and shows that each test demonstrates many predictions. Among them, basic characteristics of imagery, such as the characteristics at time of receiving stimuli, functional equivalency of imagery to perception, amount of information of images, rapidity of generations of images, are mainly responsible for vividness. In the area of learning/memory, such factors as the complexity of materials and difficulty of processing, whether learning is intentional or incidental, and applicability of strategies other than imagery strategies, are decisively important. The effects of the controllability measured by the TVIC extend beyond an imagery characteristic to cognitive/adaptive flexibility. Various predictive effects shown by the subjective imagery tests clearly prove that imagery plays practical functions that are not limited to mere subjective phenomena. It is claimed that they provide one answer to the previous controversy on the validity of subjective imagery tests and also to the imagery debate on the nature of imagery. The review comes to the conclusion that imagery has multifaceted phenomenality and functionality, and subjective tests reflect functional differences in cognitive processes according to the characteristics of each test. It is proposed that research of individual imagery differences stands on the stage where the mechanisms of imagery abilities should be an issue.
Two future time perspectives are commonly known: the expansive and limited future time perspectives, in which a person views the future as long and wide, and short and limited, respectively. This study examined the relationship between future time perspective and depressive tendencies. In the first part, 163 undergraduate students imagined the short- earlier than the long-term future and 191 undergraduate students imagined the long- earlier than the short-term future. The results showed that depressive tendencies reduced the degree of the expansive future time perspective, and an order effect was observed for each depressive level. In the second part, whether attentional biases could be observed under two future time perspective conditions by controlling depressive tendencies was investigated. In total, high and low depressive groups comprising 15 college students each were instructed to generate mental imagery about their short- and long-term futures. A significant difference in response times to negative stimuli as an attentional bias was observed between groups under the expansive future time perspective condition and within the high depressive group under the two future time perspective conditions.
The purpose of this study was to develop an Evaluation Scale of Movement Imagery：Blind soccer version（ESMI-BS）. Study 1 investigated the reliability and validity of the ESMI-BS．Study 2 confirmed the rank correlation coefficient for ESMI-BS, dribbling time, and goal shooting rate. Results indicated that ESMI-BS had high reliability and validity. Moreover, a negative rank correlation was suggested between the internal imagery and dribbling time; a positive rank correlation was indicated between the overlooking imagery and the rate of goal shooting. Thus, it was concluded that ESMI-BS could be used as an evaluation of movement imagery for blind soccer players.