1. Actual process of the development of lou-dness decrease (perstimulatory loudness adaptation)was measured and recorded by means of Bekesy audiometry. 2. Loudness decrease occured abruptly imme-diately after the stimulation began, and rapid but negatively accelerated development followed, Lou-dness decrease was mainly observed in the firs tseveral seconds but asymptote was reached about 1 to 3 minutes later. 3. The amount of loudness decrease became greater as a test tone was intensified and it attai-ned a maximum amount at 80db of suprathreshold level. But it seemed to be almost constant bet-ween 70db and 90db and it showed a tendency of decrease if a test tone was intensified still greater. 4. The amount of loudness decrease was lar-ger at 1000cps and higher frequency tone than 500cps. Even if the different rates of loudness growth at these frequencies were corrected, this tendency was still maintained. 5. It seemed that there was no relationshipbetween the amount of loudness decrease and a rise decay time or a duty cycle if the comparison tone was completely interrupted. 6. The ear which was adapted to the tone of 1000cps was thought to be adapted to the tone of 2000cps too.
It is the purpose of this experiment to observe recovery of abnormal auditory adaptation by means of Bekesy fixed frequency audiometry and reverse TTD test. After the tested ear showed maximum elevation of auditory threshold in usual TTD tra-cing by nsing a continuous pure tone, the recovery process just from the highly adapted state of the ear was traced by these two methods. Test signals used were the continuous, the amplitude-modulated, and the interrupted pure tones. The results were as follows : 1) Bekesy tracing for a continuous pure tone showed no recovery of auditory threshold from the temporary hearing loss in TTD test and smal-ler amplitude than the nonadapted state of the test-ear, whereas that for an interrupted pure tone showed complete recovery from the hearing loss and normal amplitude similar to the nonadapted state. 2) As the ampitude modulation of the test tones was increased, recovery curves of Bekesy and reverse TTD tracings were changed in thre-sholds and amplitudes from those of the more adapted state of the test-ear for a continuous tone to those of the less adapted state for an interru-pted tones
Startle response audiometry was performed on normal kindergartner, outpatient children in our clinic and deaf-school children with highly impai-red hearing mainly. The test utilized pure tones and thirteen social sounds. Startle response audiometry by pure tones was compared with subjective hearing test (by using hand raising method). The reliability of startle response audiometry by using pure tones was stu-died by comparing the thresholds of first test and retest. Pure tones were compared with social sounds as to the sound sources of startle response audiom-etry. Pure tones were compared with social sounds as to the sound sources of startle response audiom-etry. At the same time, play audiometry and stan-dard audiometry were performed on normal kinde-rgartner and outpatient children. Possibility on play and standard audiometry to apply was compared. The reliability of play and standard audiometry were studied on comparison with the thresholds of both methods and variation of the thresholds between first test and retest on each methods. The results were as follows: (1) Startle response audiometry by pure tones was highly successfully performed on children ab-ove 3 years of age with normal hearing and impai-red hearing, on whome subjective method was im-possible to apply. (2) The comparison of the thresholds between startle response audiometry by pure tones and su-bjective method showed the same value on 90% of normal children and 75% of children with impair-ed hearing. (3) Comparing first test with retest of startle response audiometry by pure tones, threshold is lower in retest. The change of thresholds was within 5 phon on 70_??_90% of children tested. (4) Startle response audiometry by using social sounds revieled higher thresholds than by using pure tones. The response of a parson change amo-ng different kinds of social sounds. The parsons with different degree and type of hearing loss have different and complicated response to the sounds. (5) Startle response audiometry by using pure tones has a higher reliability. It can be used as a quantitative method in daily practice. As a sound source of startle response audiom-etry, pure tones is superior to social sounds. (6) The range of age of children, to whome play and standard audiometry can be performed are the same on children with normal and impaired hearing. (7) Variation of thresholds between first test and retest of play and standard audiometry was the same. Thresholds of play and standard audiometry was almost equal. (8) Play and standard audiometry have about the same reliability. Standard audiometry is a good test which can be used as hearing test for young children as play audiometry.
The present study has heen performed, in order to elucidate the relationship between inflam- mation of the epipharyngeal mucosa and the flora, and agents aggravating inflammation. The results are as follows: 1)There was a parallel relation between the change of the epipharyngeal flora and clinical sy- mptoms of epipharyngitis, especially at the time of acute exacerbation of epipharyngitis.The cha- nge of the flora on smears was divided into 6 grades. 2)The cultual characteristics of the flora were divided into 3 types according to the growing mo- de on the blood agar.The characteristics of the flora had close relationswithclinicalcourseof epipharyngitis. 3)Thestrain, especially staphylococcus aureus, whose colony frequently showed pure culture on the blood agar was considered as one of the agents aggravating epipharyngitis. 4)The experiment in rabbits revealed the sta- phyloccus aureus alone could cause slight epiphar- yngitis, but more severe inflammation caused by the bacteria was applied to the epipharynx with the powder of charcoal. Consequently, it is thought that dust can play an important role in exacerbation of epipharyngitis.
A 6-year-old Japanese female with the Trea-cher-Collins'syndrome is presented.This case is "complete"according to the classification of Fra-nceschetti.To the best of our knowledge, 12 cases with this syndrome have been reported in our co-untry, while according to Stovin, 63 cases have done in Europe until 1960. Case;This patient was first seen because of congenital malformation of the left auricle and stenosis of the external auditory meatus associating with ophthalmologic abnormalities, such as antim-ongoloid slant, hyperterolism and ectropium of the lateral part of the lower lids.Bilateral hearing loss(75db lef, 65db right)were measured.Bone con-duction was normal.Vestibular function, vision, visual field and the fundi oculi were all normal.The patient's IQ(Tanaka Binet)was69.The m-ain radiological abnormalities are the hypo-plastic mandible and zygomatic arches with the smallness of the facial bones.Abnormal shape of the sella turcica, sharp slope of the base of the sku11, and impressio digitale were also observed. A left tympanoplasty using postauricular skin for the tympanoplastic procedure and creation of the unilateral external auditory meatus were perf-ormed.At the operatio, the mastoid bone was not pneumatized and the ear drum, ossic1es, chorda tympani and round window were not noticed in the small tympanic cavity.However, the runin the small tympanic cavity.However, the runin of the semicircular canal and the facial nerve were observed.Satisfactory gain in hearing was not obtained after the opeation.The measurement of each part of the face in this case revealed the facial characteristics of the fetus due to earlier developmental disorders compared with normal facial development.
Damage to the superior laryngeal nerve has been scarcely mentioned in thyroid surgery, though much emphasis is placed on the preservation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. In the present paper fifty-four adult cadaver larynges with the thyroid gland were studied in order to make clear the vulnerability of the superior laryngeal nerve duri- ng thyroid operation. The results obtained are as follows : (1) The external branch of the superior laryn- geal nerve was found to run adjacent to the thyr- oid gland in 68% and apart from the gland in 32%. (2) The external branch of the superior laryn- geal nerve ran very close to the superior thyroid artery. The nerve was situated posteriorly to the artery in 45% of our cases and ran between the braches of the artery in 55%. (3) The internal branch of the superior laryn- geal nerve ran apart less than 20mm from the up- per pole of the thyroid gland in 62% and apart less than 25mm in 88%.
There has so far been no description on the Meniere's disease of children in our country, and even is Europe and the United States only several reports on it have been submitted. Since 1961 we have made a study of the ve- stibular reaction of children and established the testing methods and the standardization of the ju- dging from their results. In the course of the study, four children with typical Meniere's disease were observed, and we could make clear the characteristics of the disease by using various detailed tests to some degree. And then we reported it in consideration of the litrature.