Predicted patterns of energy consumption and Condition for SOX, NOX, CO2 emissions, which have most affected projections for global change by 2000 and 2010, with five scenarios (involving two cases of energy consumption and three environmental measures) in the whole Asian area are shown by countries and regions.
The economic development since the Industrial Revolution has been supported by the provision of energy, which has also increased the burden on the environment. While the industrialised countries account for the large proportion of the past and present energy consumption and environmental pollution, the contribution from the nations which are presently called “developing countries” is expected to exceed half the global energy requirements and environmental pollution in 30 years with their economic development. In addition, the environmental concerns have extended from the traditional and localised pollutions to those with wider time and regional perspective, called the global environmental problems such as climatic warming. The future task of the human kind is to ensure the stable energy demand and supply and to improve the environment, while allowing the economic progress. At the same time, the country and regional differences exist in their energy resource endowment, response potential to environmental protection, and other characteristics. Thus, the steady actions are needed, reflecting the specific circumstances, mutually learning other countries' experiences and exchanging technologies and information. The short-sighted uniform measures, such as the introduction of the common carbon tax would be counter-productive.
The initial stage liquefaction of six coals, Estevan, Wabamun, Taiheiyo, Wandoan, Illinois No.6 and Lingan coals, was studied. Heat-treatment of coal and a hydrogenated anthracene oil slurry (1: 3 by weight) was carried out using a pipe reactor which was designed to recover six heat-treated samples at progressively higher temperatures. About 3.4min. were required to raise the temperature from room temperature to around 450°C. Pyridine insolubles, PI, decreased with an increase in temperature in all coals studied. In the cases of Taiheiyo and Illinois No.6 coals, PI values of the sixth samples (445°C) were less than 10%, showing that the initial stage liquefaction reaction of both coals was almost completed. The sixth samples of Wandoan and Lingan coals had small PI values of less than 16%. Estevan and Wabamun coals had PI values of around 45% in the sixth samples. In the cases of Taiheiyo, Wandoan, Illinois No.6 and Lingan coals, the change of viscosity of each slurry with temperature showed a maximum. This maximum is caused by the swelling and disintegration of coal particles with increasing temperature. Estevan and Wabamun coals, which did not have small PI values in the sixth samples, did not show such a maximum. The viscosity and weight-average molecular weight of filtrate increased as the reaction progressed. Hydrogen released from hydrogen donor components in the hydrogenated anthracene oil played an important role in the initial stage of coal liquefaction. Judging from the relation between PI value and the amount of released hydrogen, the coal conversion per unit amount of released hydrogen was found to largely depend on coal rank.
In this paper, the new electric power generation system by piston type solid phase heat engine using shape memory alloy is proposed. The proposed system is developed by authors for the purposes not only of establishing new power generation technologies utilizing thermal energy of low temperature region but also of making this new technologies available for practical use. The followings are described. (1) The trial apparatus based on the proposed principle is manufactured as a new power generation system, whereby life becomes long, is made compact size and thus weak points of prevailing systems are corrected. Furthermore, proposed principle is proved by generating successfully the trial appartus. (2) The test results show that the proposed system can be useful for middle load power station when the system is connected to power transmission line. (3) Valuable test results are obtained regarding characteristics on a method of using shape memory alloy for heat engine.
Three kinds of coals were pyrolyzed under H2 or He and gasified under CO2 atmospheres by use of a temperature programmed reaction (TPR) method. The evolution patterns of H2S and COS, the sulphur removal and the changes of sulphur forms were investigated to examine the effects of the reaction atmosphere and the type of coal on the behavior of sulphur compounds during the reaction. It was shown that the sulphur removal and the evolution patterns of H2S and COS varied from coal to coal. The effect of atmosphere on sulphur removal was dependent on the coal type. The changes of inorganic sulphur in coal during reaction were found to be independent on reaction atmospheres, while the behavior of the organic sulphur was strongly affected by the atmospheres especially for Datong coal. The total sulphur removal mainly depends on the amount of the organic sulphur removed. The different behaviors of the sulphur forms especially that of the organic sulphur among the coals could be attributed to the differences in structure of sulphur compounds contained in the coals.
The discharge coefficient (C) of pressure nozzles can be predicted by the nozzle parameters, which are defined by their nozzle geometry. The purpose of this study is to compare the three representative nozzle parameters, “K”, “A'”, and “Δ”. from the viewpoint of practical application. Prediction of “C” by using nozzle Parameter “K” is greatly influenced by the ratio (k=do/ri) of the diameter of swirl insert (do) to the radius of swirl chamber (ri). On the other hand, prediction of “C” by using “A'” or “Δ” does not depend on “k” at the practical range of “k” between 0.2 and 1.0. It was also found that “A'” and “Δ” can be expressed as the function of “K” and “k”, by rearranging their original definitions. Therefore it is considered that “A'” and “Δ” are more widely applicable nozzle parameters. However, inspite of using these suitable nozzle parameters, prediction of “C” is still influhnced by the diameter of the swirl chamber (“di”) itself. It is found that “C” increases with decreasing“di” in the case of atomization of water.
The present status of coal liquefaction technology (ST-5 and ST-75 projects) in Russia was investigated. The ST-5 project (7-10t-coal/d process development unit) was promoted by Fossil Fuel Institute and its opearation study at Tula was begun in 1986. The coal sample used was mainly Borodinsky brown coal from Kansk -Achinsk basin, which is abundantly reserved in the province of Krasnoyarsk. The process is characterized by the low hydrogen pressure of less than 10MPa, the use and recovery of higher active and dispersion molybdenum catalyst, the addition of organic compounds for the suppression of retrogressive reaction, and the use of hydrotreated recycle solvent. The conversion of coal into gas, water and liquid fractions was more than 70 wt% daf under standard reaction conditions. The ST-75 project (100t-coal/d pilot plant) was started near Beryozovo deposit in Kansk-Achinsk basin in 1986 to produce gasolin, diesel and jet fuels. However, the project was quited in 1992 for financial reason and a part of the equipments purchased was transfered to the ST-5 plant.