The relationship between pore partition property and the drum strength of coke was investigated. The structure of coke made from the high and the medium fluidity coal consists of the pore with the size ranging from 10 to ca.500 μm and the pore partition. The pore partition in coke specimens is destroyed by the impact during the drum strength test, and coke is partially abraded. Therefore the size of coke powder meets that of pore partition, i. e. the larger the pore partition the larger the coke powder. The total weight of the coke powder, which agreed with the drum strength, was calculated by multiplying the number and the mean weight of each coke particle. When the thickness of pore partition is large, the number of coke powder is decreased. However, since the mean weight of each coke particle is increased, the total weight of coke powder is not always decreased by simply increasing the thickness of pore partition.
The hydrogenolysis reaction products derived from Muswellbrook coal were separated into dichloromethane insoluble (liquefaction residue CLR) and dichloromethane soluble (DS). Furthermore, DS was separated into basic (B), neutral (N) and acidic (A) fractions. Then, the hydrogenolysis reactions of mixture of CLR and any one of DS, B, N and A were investigated at 420°C for 1 h under the presence of H2 (60 kg/cm2), with red mud and sulfur catalysts. In the reaction of mixture of CLR and N, the decreases of hexane soluble (HS) and hexane insoluble-benzene soluble (HIBS) and the increase of dichloromethane insoluble (DI) were observed. The catalyst deactivation occurred by the adsorption on the catalyst surface of highly condensed aromatic compounds in CLR, the hydrogenolysis of aromatic compounds in N and the conversions of CLR to dichloromethane soluble were inhibited. In the reaction of mixture of CLR and A, since there were little interaction between CLR and phenols in A, the conversions of A to HS and CLR to dichloromethane soluble were inhibited by the catalyst deactivation described above. In the reaction of mixture of CLR and B, CLR was dissolved and dispersed into B composed of heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, and more donatable hydrogens were formed during the reaction of mixture of CLR and B. Therefore, the catalyst was not deactivated, the radicals derived from mixture of CLR and B were stabilized by hydrogen donation. As a result, the synergistic effects such as the increase of HS and the decrease of benzene insoluble, not predictable from the hydrogenolysis reaction of CLR or B alone, appeared.
The softwere for the life cycle assessment named “NIRE-LCA” was developed by authors. In this softwere, both input and output data concerming energy and materials were registerd in every processes and they were cited in the tree and branch form in order to calculate inputs and emissions totally, when the life cycle assessment of a product was carried out. This softwere has also the evaluation system of the environmental performance about the total inputs and emissions obtained by the above calculation.
The demineralization of Thai, Colorado and Condor oil shales was carried out by three step treatment. The first step was decarbonation using HC1 aq., the second was demineralization using HF-HC1. At this stage, more than 10 wt.% of minerals based on products remained in the shales. It is considered that some kinds of minerals such as FeSx and fluoride salts remained judging from elementary analyses. The third step, washing by hot HC1 aq. was effective to remove these salts. The resulted shales contained 2.2, 2.5 and 2.7 wt.% of minerals based on the products, respectively. Most of kerogen was recovered for Thai shale, while about 5% of kerogen lost for Condor shale. However, organic carbon recoveries were fairly good for every oil shales. This means that the kerogen content of Condor raw shale included not only kerogen but also some inorganic compounds which volatilize at the same temperature range as the kerogen does.