The average unit structures of Thai, Colorado and Condor oil shale kerogens were estimated from the results of elementary analysis, and the contents of aromatic, aromatic quaternary, aliphatic and terminal methyl carbons determinedby means of solid state 13C CP/MAS NMR and Dipolar Dephasing NMR (DD) techniques. The average unin structures of these kerogens consisted of 1-2 aromatic and 2-5 naphthenic rings, which were conjuncted only 2 carbons, and 2-3 side chains. The structure of the fused rings was very similar to those of steroids or trierpenoids, which were found in oil shale kerogen as biomarkers. Thai kerogen had longer side chain than the others. Condor kerogen was thought to contain more naphthenic rings than the others.
An experimental study has been performed to obtain the effect of relative velocity between droplet and ambient flow on the evaporation rate constant of a nheptane free droplet of 180 μm in diameter flying in a hot and normal pressure air flow. Measurements of droplet diameter and velocity were conducted in a series of time elapsed by an electrically controlled optical system. From the experimental results, an empirical equation associated with the relation between evaporation rate constant and relative velocity was obtained.
The effect of the electric power generation structure and efficiencies of thermal power plants on the environmental performance of the aluminum production in Indonesia and Japan was evaluated using the softwere named “NIRE-LCA” developed by authers. The result showed that the environmental performance of aluminum production in Japan was better than in Indonesia, because efficiencies of thermal power plants in Japan were higher than in Indonesia, although fossil fuels were transported from the producing countries to Japan.