The selectivity of ring opening was investigated for the hydrocracking of fluorene under an initial hydrogen pressure of 6 MPa and in the temperature range from 390 to 450 °C. Major products were classified into the following five components: hydrogenated fluorene, biphenyl derivatives, diphenylmethane derivatives, naphthalene derivatives and monocyclic compounds. Ring opening of fluorene proceeded via three routes: the direct ring opening of fluorene to produce 2-methylbiphenyl, ring opening of hexahydrofluorene to produce cyclohexylphenylmethane and ring opening of isomerized products of hexahydrofluorene to produce naphthalene derivatives.
Cellulose and red pine were thermally decomposed in water at 200°C in order to clarify the origin and formation of coal. The gaseous and water-soluble products were analyzed by GC and 1H-NMR, while the structural consideration of the water-insoluble solid products was performed by elemental analyses, CP/MAS 13C-NMR and functional group analyses. Morwell brown coal and Morwell coalified log were also analyzed by the same methods. Cellulose was gradually converted at 200°C into water, carbon dioxide, water-solubles and water-insoluble brownish materials. The product distribution did not change after 20hours. The 13C-NMR spectra of the brownish residues after 20hours were similar to that of Morwell brown coal, which indicated that polycyclic aromatic structures should be formed from cellulose during the hydrous pyrolysis at 200°C. The 13C-NMR spectra of the hydrous pyrolysis residues (50hr and 100hr) of red pine were similar to that of Morwell coalified log. The partial model structures of the hydrous pyrolysis residues (50hr), Morwell brown coal, and Morwell coalified log were obtained from the analytical data as shown in Fig. 8. The results showed that the hydrous pyrolysis at 200°C could transform cellulose and wood to brown coal-like materials in only twenty hours.
Entrusted by NEDO, IGC Research Association has conducted the R&D of an IGCC power system from 1986 to 1996. Nakoso IGCC pilot plant is composed of an air blown gasifier, hot gas clean-up facilities (fluidized bed, fixed bed and moving bed types), and a gas turbine for low calorie coal gas. After its mechanical completion in March 1991, test operation of the plant was started gasifying a domestic and two Australian coals. Overcoming various difficulties such as the slagging in the gasifier, cumulative operating hours of the gasifier exceeded 4, 700 hours, including the continuous operation of 789 hours. Almost all of the results such as the HHV of the product gas, cold gas efficiency of the gasifier, desulfurization and dedusting efficiencies of the gas clean-up facilities and load following capability of the plant, are satisfactory to the target values.