Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) has been con-ducting R&D oncoal conversion technologies in Japan. New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has been carrying out some R&D pro-jects on coal conversion technologies as a part of “New Sunshine Program” lead by AIST. Coal liquefaction and gasification are major concern for NEDO and the overview of the R&D projects up-dated is presented in this paper. In addition, new concept and ambi-tion of R&D on coal conversion technologies are also outlined. Key Words Coal conversion, Coal liquefaction, 150 t/d pilot plant, Coal hydrogasification, Ambition
China has made every effort to increase the capacity of water trans-port since the foundation of the People's Republic of China. The volume of the water transport of coal was 158 million tons in 1995, and the water transport is the largest taransport-mode of coal in China. China expects to con-tinue 8% economic growth rate for the next fifteen years. The production of coal is esti-mate at 1.4 billon tons in 2000 and 2.0 billion tons in 2010. The shortage of investment in water transport will bring about the shortage of the water transport. It is predicted that the water transport, if it is insufficent to invest in water trans-port, would be bottleneck in the producution of coal in China. It is also necessary that both railway transport and road transport are expanded by investment. The coal and water transport are essential to Chinese economy. The paper shows that appropriate policy on transport of coal is quite necessary for the sound economic growth in the future.
The performance of chemical reaction of CaS particle under oxidizing atmosphere condition was investigated in the temperature range of 700 to 1300°C by a TG-DTA apparatus. The chemical reaction was found to be complicated process with the products of CaO, CaSO4 and the release of SO2 gas. The weight of sample changed in the following three different ways: gain, loss, and oscillation. The whole reaction process could be classified into three reaction steps: The reaction of CaS +2O2→CaSO4 took place as the weight gain in the first step.The weight loss with release of SO2 gas resulted from the reaction of CaS + 3/2O2→CaO + SO2 in the second step.The oscillation behavior in the third step can be given explanation through the decomposition and formation of calcium sulfate. The temperature range of the second step was strongly dependent on the O2 concentration of inlet gas. Higher bulk O2 condition led to the higher O2 concentration at the reaction front, so that the temperature of second step shifted to higher one. The reaction rate of CaS to CaO between 950 and 1050°C at 1% O2 was expressed as 1.1 × 1017 exp (-54847/T) s-1.
150 T/D Coal liquefaction pilot plant (PP) supported by New Energyand Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) was successfully operatedwithout any serious trouble throughout five runs operated till 1998. The most important object in this project is to develop Demonstration Plant orCommercial Plant, or to take a varieties of engineering data including performance testof each equipment. Additionally, it is very important to establish commercial acceptability of coal liquefactionproducts by means of clearing their chemical component and toxicological properties. The works reported here are those which relate to characteristic properties of coalliquefaction products and their toxicological properties. Also we are going to mentionour planning concerning the toxicological assessment to be done.
Activity of solvent hydrogenation catalyst was investigated from charactarization of recycle solvent in the 150t/d bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant. The following conclusions are obtained. (1) In the pilot plant, solvent hydrogenation catalyst exhibits high activity for hydrogenation of aromatic compounds. This activity gives hydrogendonability to recycle solvent. (2) Recycle solvent mainly consists of tworings aromatic compounds, and increase of more condensed aromatic compounds (over three rings) in the solvent causes decrease of the reaction rate constant. (3) The reaction rate at the pilot plant is higher than that at PSU and bench scale unit. This results from difference of compositions of the solvents and contacting effectiveness among these facilities. Therefore, it's so important for conceptual design work to evaluate these influences.
Reactions of sour gas components, such as H2S, HCN and CO2 in COG, with diluted aqueous ammonia solution were studied through adsorption tests by means of packed tower. In case of purifying COG containing a proper quantity of NH3, water washing method with a suitable L/G was found to be most effective for selectively removing H2S and HCN from COG. Rates of absorbing reactions of sour gas components with aqueous ammonia solution are determined by gas film resistance, and then main factors for chemical engineering are obtainable by theoretical calculation based on inlet/ outlet gas properties. In this paper, theoretical height of packed tower, compared with obserbed one, is discussed by means of calculating over-all gas-phase volumetric coefficient KGa based on Henry's law constant with chemical reaction derived from the previous work.