Around the year 1980, Japanese corporations began increasing their R&D budgets dramatically. Since the bursting of Japan's economic “Bubble” in 1990, these budgets have not decreased significantly but we do see today a sharp division between corporations that were able to develop new areas of business and those which were unable to achieve results. The difference is due to structural factors relating to organization and strategy. Managerial tasks concerning the structural aspects of R&D activities can be divided into the following five areas: problems concerning strategy and direction, problems concerning choice of research themes and distribution of resources, process management, communication and human management. How can corporations improve their R&D organizations? Although there is no universally applicable theory, in light of conditions in many Japanese corporations today, the following tasks should be important. 1) Review all research activities (R&D) in terms of compliance with corporate strategy and character of business operations and redefine activities with relation to profitability. 2) Redistribute resources allotted to each R&D theme boldly by concentrating resources on a smaller number of themes chosen by the entire management. 3) Actively break down stiff personnel and organizational patterns by increasing researcher mobility based on work record and potential capabilities.
This report described the experiments that used plasma reaction between plasma source gases and brown coal (Yallourn). The properties of the products were influenced by changes of the experimental conditions. The reaction experiments were carried out with 2.45GHz microwave plasma by using hydrogen, helium and argon systems. Ratios of coal conversion (Xc) were as follows;Xc (H2) was 33.2%, (He) was 13.7%, and Xc (Ar) was 24.8% at reaction time 1 minute. No practical difference was detected after 3 minutes. Yields of benzene soluble oily fractions (Yoil) were as follows; Yoil (H2) was 6.0%, Yoil (He) was 3.4% and Yoil (Ar) was 8.7% at 1 minute, while at 3 minutes Yoil (H2) was 4.9%, Yoil (He) was 4.1% and You (Ar) was 7.7%. In addition at 1 minute, no difference of molecular weight distribution measured by MALDI-TOFMS spectra and GC was observed, while the polymerization of oily products under argon or hydrogen system was occurred after 3 minutes. Yields of gaseous components (Ygas) were as follows; Ygas (H2) was 27.2%, Ygas (He) was 10.3% and Ygas (Ar) was 16.0% at 1 minute, while Y, (H2) was 48.1%, Ygas (He) was 50.9% and Ygas (Ar) was 46.6% at 3 minutes. Typical patterns of time change in molar fraction of gaseous components by GC were shown on each plasma source gas.
1, 000 Nm3/h pilot plant was designed and built at the coke plant site on the basis of industrial and technical knowledge obtained through the previous basic experiment for COG purification process by washing with diluted ammonia solution. Principal studies were conducted and discussed in the program, mainly on the absorption profile curve in a column, optimum flow combination for absorption liquid between two columns, ammonia addition rate to absorption liquid, and relation of residual density of H2S and HCN in absorption liquid with rate of gas absorption. Past many attempts as Collin process and Coppers process were made to develop the removal of H2S by means of thick ammonia solution with little success. H2S removal in this work was conducted by means of diluted ammonia solution, because chemical absorption of H2S in such solution was found to make good progress in parallel current flow which contributes to elevated Kca. Factory waste free process is a final goal of development of COG purification by means of diluted ammonia solution washing. Removal rates of H2S and HCN are got over 98 % by means of regenerated lean solution, and over 90% for NH3.
A cleavage reaction of chemical bonds connecting between aromatic clusters in coal was investigated. We conducted the heat-treatment of coals or coal model compounds in the presence of a hydrogen donor at 380-420°C for 5-60 min in a sealed tube. As the hydrogen donor, 9, 10-dihydroanthracene (DHA) or 9, 10-dihydrophenanthrene (DHP) was used. In the reaction of coal with hydrogen donor at 420°C for 5 min, larger amounts of hydrogen were consumed for DHP than for DHA. Bond cleavage reactions using several model compounds showed that the yields of homolytically cleaved products were higher than those of ipso position cleaved products. This is reasonable in terms of their bond dissociation energies. On the other hand, ipso position cleavage reaction was preferable in the presence of DHP. As the results, it is considered that ipso position cleavage reaction has an important contribution to the reaction of coal with DHP at relatively higher temperature. Since the model compounds having dimethylene bridge are considered to represent polymethylene bridge bonds, monomethylene is believed to be a significant bridge bond which governs the coal reactivity.