To utilize waste polyvinyl chloride (PVC), the removal of chlorine in PVC has been studied by newly designed rotary kiln. Coarse coke was simultaneously supplied to prevent an agglomeration of PVC particle and sticking to an inner wall of kiln during PVC dechlorination reaction. The heat for dechlorination was supplied from the outer tube of the rotary kiln so as to minimize the amount of processed gas containing HCl. Basically, it was verified that this rotary kiln could be smoothly operated due to the presence of coke particle. It was observed that dechlorinated residue was a porous materials formed along with the removal of HCl and was coated with coke particle. Dechlorination efficiency of PVC increased with an increase in the processing temperature and retention time in kiln. Dechlorination reaction of soft PVC was a little different from that of rigid PVC because of containing plasticizer in soft PVC. It was considered that plasticizer in soft PVC was inhibited dechlorination reaction. From the above results, it was concluded that an optimum reaction conditions to give 95% of dechlorination efficiency were the processing temperature of 350°C, the retention time of over 15min and the PVC/Coke weight ratio of 1.0. Yield of the dechlorinated residue for the use of blast furnace was 40% for rigid PVC and 20 to 40% for soft PVC. It was estimated that the application of this process enable to utilize effectively industrial and municipal waste plastics containing PVC in the blast furnace.
In high-field NMR experiments of carbonaceous solids such as coal and pitch, the high-speed magic-angle spinning (MAS) method is a powerful technique for reducing the intensity of the spinning sidebands that disturbs the precise interpretation of the spectrum. However, the high-speed MAS produces two unfavorable problems. One is the decline in the rate of polarization transfer from 1H to 13C during the cross-polarization (CP), and another is the NMR signal intensity fluctuation in the dipolar-dephasing (DD) experiments. Therefore, the availability of high-speed MAS, variable amplitude (VA)-CP pulse sequence, and DD experiments with the delay times synchronized with sample spinning were examined in the high-field NMR of a carbonaceous sample. Consequently, it was confirmed that the high-field NMR spectroscopy is a useful technique for the structural characterization of carbonaceous solids as well as the low-field NMR.
Ruthenium complexes [RuII (bpy) 3] Cl2, [RuIII (H2O) (NH3) 5] Cl3, [RuIIICl (NH3) 5] Cl2, [(bpy) 2 (NO2) RuIIIORuIII (NO2) (bpy) 2] (ClO4) 2 and [(bpy) 2 (H2O) RuIIIORuIII (H2) (bpy) 2] (ClO4) 4 were used for the visible-light photocatalysts in the decomposition ofwater. The photocatalysts were systematized in an ITO/Nf (Ru (bpy) 3) /Pt/Me multilayer, where Me represents [RuIII (H2O) (NH3) 5] Cl3, [RuIIICl (NH3) 5] Cl2, [(bpy) 2 (NO2) RuIIIORuIII (NO2) (bpy) 2] (ClO4) 2, or [(bpy) 2 (H2O) RuIIIORuIII (H2O) (bpy) 2] (ClO4) 4, and Nf (Ru (bpy) 3) denotes the [RuII (bpy) 3] ion incorporated into Nafion (ion-exchange membrane). Whenthe ITO (electrically conductive glass) was polarized anodically and irradiated with visiblelight, water was oxidized to form oxygen on the Me area
A continuous-flow extraction was conducted on kerosene fraction derived from Wyoming coal by methanolmediatedextraction Continuous operation was performed for 100 hours with feedstock supplied at a rate of 1kg/hr, demonstrating stable operation. The extraction yields of treated oil and phenols were almost constant throughout the duration of the operation. To 100kg of feedstock supplied, 19.5kg of crude phenol including 50.8wt% of phenol, cresols and ethylphenols and 78.8kg of treated oil were obtained. Those extraction yields were 84.4%, 75.3% and 62.5%, respectively. The extraction yields well corresponded to those from batch experiments.