It is shown that ISO 14001 could be understood as a framework which forces an organization “to adopt the norm to behave in an environmentally sound manner, set up concrete environmental targets along with the norm, commit to behave for attaining the targets, and prove to the outside that the commitment has been done”. It comes to clear that the environmental management system discussed in the UNCED had the same framework as it of ISO 14001, which could be defined above. It is also shown by tracing the drawing up process of ISO 14001 that nothing had been changed regarding on the framework that was basically established in the UNCED. Based on the above discussions, ISO 14001 could be regarded as the standard in which the idea discussed in UNCED for resolving the global environmental problem had been embodied. In this context, ISO 14001 is expected to take advantage of resolving the global environmental problem actively as a new measure.
This article deals with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of warm water supplying system. LCA is an objective process to evaluate environmental burdens associated with products or processes, to assess the impact of them, and to evaluate and implement opportunities to affect environmental improvements. For the purpose of reducing energy consumption, we propose the warm water supplying system, which collects waste heat from electric power plant in operation, and transports it to existing waterworks system. Utilizing this system, we will be able to cut down the fuel for boilers especially in winter without huge initial investment.We investigate the existing waterworks and thermal power plants around Tokyo, and estimate the effects of energy saving through a year, taking account of pressure loss, temperature descent, increase of fuel consumption at thermal power plants and burden of construction. The result shows that this system can save primary energy consumption and reduce CO2 emission by almost 0.5-1% in Tokyo. In conclusion, this system is effective to save energy without large-scale newly construction.
To examine kinetics of aromatic ring hydrogenation in the solvent hydrotreatment of NEDOL coal liquefaction process, hydrotreatment of the solvents recycled in the 150t/d pilot plant (PP) was carried out over Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst under 8-12MPa using a fixed bed reactor. Negative influence of thermodynamic equilibrium on the aromatic ring hydrogenation became larger as the hydrotreatment temperature increased. At the temperature of 360-380°C, a temperature dependency of the aromatic ring hydrogenation was restricted by the thermodynamic equilibrium. Kinetics of the aromatic ring hydrogenation involving the thermodynamic equilibrium was a reversible first order reaction. The activation energy was larger for the reverse dehydrogenation reaction (30.5-33.9kcal/mol) than for the forward hydrogenation reaction (24.1-26.2kcal/mol). An increase in the hydrogen pressure reduced the negative influence of the thermodynamic equlibrium. The rate of the aromatic ring hydrogenation was influenced by class of the raw coal and coal concentration in the slurry fed to the liquefaction reactor.
Recycle solvents used in a 150t/d NEDOL coal liquefaction pilot plant were separated into non-polar and polar component, and the non-polar component were examined by GC and GC-MS. Major compound classes in the each non-polar component were quantified, and the influences of raw coal and the concentration of coal in a feed slurry on their composition were discussed. The influence of raw coal was appreciable in the amount of n-paraffins and polar component in the solvent. Perhydrogenated homologues of polycondensed aromatic compounds were contained in only negligible amounts. The higher concentration of coal in a feed slurry needed the larger amount of heavy distillate in the solvent and the severe hydrotreatment to enhance hydrogen donating ability of the solvent, which resulted in the increase of larger cyclic compounds with more naphthenic rings. The fa value of each compound class was similar for all the solvents, and the average fa values were useful for the evaluation of the fa values of the recycle solvents by being combined with the compound class composition obtained from HPLC