An experimental study has been performed on the ignition process of liquid fuel particles to obtain the fundamental data of spray combustion. The particles consisted of the center particle and ligands arranged in a geometric configuration. The number of ligands was defined as coordination number. The particles were set in a combustion chamber and the combustion chamber was filled with a propane-air mixture at atmospheric pressure. The propagating laminar flame was formed with the hot wire ignition and the particles were ignited by the flame. The results showed that in case of coordination number 3, the dimensionless ignition delay of the center particle decreased with a decrease in the dimensionless particle distance, and that in case of coordination number 4 and 6, the dimensionless ignition delay of the center particle had a minimum. The minimum was the smallest in case of coordination number 6. The smaller particle diameter had the larger dimensionless particle distance that showed the minimun dimensionless ignition delay.
The recycling process of waste plastics using coke ovens is now being studied. The effect of plastic addition on coal caking property was investigated. Thermal decomposition products of plastics interacted with coal during carbonization and the effect of plastic addition on coal caking property varied for kinds of plastics. The addition of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and poly vinyl chloride (PVC) had little effect on coal caking property and coke strength. On the other hand, the addition of polystyrene (PS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and terephtalic acid (TFA) decreased the maximum fluidity and total dilatation, and deteriorated the coke strength. These differences were explained by the interaction between thermally decomposed products from plastics and coal. It is suggested that the radical formed as a result of PS or PET thermal decomposition may abstract hydrogen from coal, resulting in the decrease in coal caking property.
The detailed analysis and forecast model by province (30), energy demand sector (60) and fuel type (22) in China was developed based on Gray System Theory. According to China's economic and social development strategies, and energy-conservation policies, the energy consumption by province, sector and fuel type by 2030 for two scenarios: the high and low economic growths were projected. Whereas the statistical data of energy consumption, GDP and population from 1991 to 1996 are taken as the observation period, and the year-1991 is taken as the basic base year, the detailed energy balance tables by province were projected. For Scenario 1, the increase tendency of final energy consumption will become gradual after 2025 and will reach 24, 400Pcal in 2030. For Scenario 2, the final energy consumption will reach the peak 19, 800Pcal in 2025, and decrease after 2025. The coal will still possess a dominant status in China's primary energy consumption although its share in total primary energy consumption amount decreases to 65.2% and 63.1% from 74.5% of 1995 for Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 respectively in 2030. The average growth rate of final energy consumption (3.6% and 2.8% respectively for Scenario 1 and Scenario 2) is far lower than that of GDP (7.6% and 6.7% respectively for Scenario 1 and Scenario 2) in China from 1995 to 2030.
This paper presents estimates of emissions of three major air pollutants and GHGs of China: sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) for each of 30 provinces, 60 energy demand sectors and 22 fuel types covered by the Gray Forecast Model for China's Energy Consumption (CGEn model) developed by part I Under the assumptions of the future coal sulfur contents, desulphurization efficiency and emission factors of NOx and CO2. Data for 1995 are presented, as well as future projection until 2030 with 5 year span by two, high and low economic growth, scenarios. The SO2 emissions are projected to increase to 34, 200Gg and 25, 600Gg for Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 respectively in 2030 from 23, 300Gg in 1995. Emissions of NOx are projected to increase to 25, 200Gg and 18, 400Gg for Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 respectively in 2030 from 8, 770Gg in 1995. CO2 emissions are projected to reach 10, 200Tg and 7, 590Tg for Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 respectively in 2030 from 4, 080Tg in 1995. The SO2 emissions are projected to increase to the peak 34, 200Gg in 2030 for Scenario 1 and to the peak 30, 200Gg in 2015 for Scenario 2 from 23, 300Gg in 1995. The NOx emissions are projected to increase to the peak 25, 100Gg in 2030 for Scenario 1 and to the peak 20, 100Gg in 2025 for Scenario 2 from 8, 770Gg in 1995. The CO2 emissions are projected to increase to the peak 10, 200Tg in 2030 for Scenario 1 and to the peak 8, 200Tg in 2020 for Scenario 2 from 4, 080Gg in 1995. The emissions of all three species are concentrated in the populated and industrialized provinces: Sichuan, Shandong, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Shanxi and Hebei. As a base case in this paper part I and II, without consideration of low NOx combustion, NOx removal and fuel switching, the future emission factors of NOx and CO2 are fixed as present state. The emission reduction effect of these options will be discussed in the following part of this work.